XIFAXAN

XIFAXAN- rifaximin tablet
Avera McKennan Hospital

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of XIFAXAN and other antibacterial drugs, XIFAXAN when used to treat infection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

1.1 Travelers’ Diarrhea

XIFAXAN is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.

Limitations of Use

XIFAXAN should not be used in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever or blood in the stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than Escherichia coli [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.4), Clinical Studies (14.1)].

1.2 Hepatic Encephalopathy

XIFAXAN is indicated for reduction in risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) recurrence in adults.

In the trials of XIFAXAN for HE, 91% of the patients were using lactulose concomitantly. Differences in the treatment effect of those patients not using lactulose concomitantly could not be assessed.

XIFAXAN has not been studied in patients with MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) scores >25, and only 8.6% of patients in the controlled trial had MELD scores over 19. There is increased systemic exposure in patients with more severe hepatic dysfunction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

1.3 Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea

XIFAXAN is indicated for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) in adults.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage for Travelers’ Diarrhea

The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 200 mg tablet taken orally three times a day for 3 days.

2.2 Dosage for Hepatic Encephalopathy

The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 550 mg tablet taken orally two times a day.

2.3 Dosage for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea

The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 550 mg tablet taken orally three times a day for 14 days. Patients who experience a recurrence of symptoms can be retreated up to two times with the same dosage regimen.

2.4 Administration

XIFAXAN can be taken with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

XIFAXAN is a pink-colored biconvex tablet and is available in the following strengths:

200 mg – a round tablet debossed with “Sx” on one side.
550 mg – an oval tablet debossed with “rfx” on one side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

XIFAXAN is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to rifaximin, any of the rifamycin antimicrobial agents, or any of the components in XIFAXAN. Hypersensitivity reactions have included exfoliative dermatitis, angioneurotic edema, and anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Travelers’ Diarrhea Not Caused by Escherichia coli

XIFAXAN was not found to be effective in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever and/or blood in the stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than Escherichia coli.

Discontinue XIFAXAN if diarrhea symptoms get worse or persist more than 24 to 48 hours and alternative antibiotic therapy should be considered.

XIFAXAN is not effective in cases of travelers’ diarrhea due to Campylobacter jejuni. The effectiveness of XIFAXAN in travelers’ diarrhea caused by Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. has not been proven. XIFAXAN should not be used in patients where Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp., or Salmonella spp. may be suspected as causative pathogens [see Indications and Usage (1.1)].

5.2 Clostridium difficile- Associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile- associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including XIFAXAN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon which may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

5.3 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Prescribing XIFAXAN for travelers’ diarrhea in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

5.4 Severe (Child-Pugh Class C) Hepatic Impairment

There is increased systemic exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The clinical trials were limited to patients with MELD scores <25. Therefore, caution should be exercised when administering XIFAXAN to patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Studies (14.2)].

5.5 Concomitant use with P-glycoprotein Inhibitors

Concomitant administration of drugs that are P-glycoprotein inhibitors with XIFAXAN can substantially increase the systemic exposure to rifaximin. Caution should be exercised when concomitant use of XIFAXAN and a P-glycoprotein inhibitor such as cyclosporine is needed. In patients with hepatic impairment, a potential additive effect of reduced metabolism and concomitant P-glycoprotein inhibitors may further increase the systemic exposure to rifaximin [see Drug Interactions (7.2), Pharmacokinetics (12.3)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Travelers’ Diarrhea

The safety of XIFAXAN 200 mg taken three times a day was evaluated in patients with travelers’ diarrhea consisting of 320 patients in two placebo-controlled clinical trials with 95% of patients receiving three or four days of treatment with XIFAXAN. The population studied had a mean age of 31.3 (18-79) years of which approximately 3% were ≥65 years old, 53% were male and 84% were White, 11% were Hispanic.

Discontinuations due to adverse reactions occurred in 0.4% of patients. The adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were taste loss, dysentery, weight decrease, anorexia, nausea and nasal passage irritation.

The adverse reaction that occurred at a frequency ≥2% in XIFAXAN-treated patients (n=320) at a higher rate than placebo (n=228) in the two placebo-controlled trials of TD was:

headache (10% XIFAXAN, 9% placebo)

Hepatic Encephalopathy

The data described below reflect exposure to XIFAXAN in 348 patients, including 265 exposed for 6 months and 202 exposed for more than a year (mean exposure was 364 days). The safety of XIFAXAN 550 mg taken two times a day for reducing the risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy recurrence in adult patients was evaluated in a 6-month placebo-controlled clinical trial (n=140) and in a long term follow-up study (n=280). The population studied had a mean age of 56 (range: 21 to 82) years; approximately 20% of the patients were ≥65 years old, 61% were male, 86% were White, and 4% were Black. Ninety-one percent of patients in the trial were taking lactulose concomitantly. The most common adverse reactions that occurred at an incidence ≥5% and at a higher incidence in XIFAXAN-treated subjects than in the placebo group in the 6-month trial are provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Most Common Adverse Reactions * in HE Trial
*
reported in 5% of Patients Receiving XIFAXAN and at a higher incidence than placebo

Number (%) of Patients

MedDRA Preferred Term

XIFAXAN Tablets

550 mg TWICE DAILY

n=140

Placebo

n=159

Peripheral edema

21 (15%)

13 (8%)

Nausea

20 (14%)

21 (13%)

Dizziness

18 (13%)

13 (8%)

Fatigue

17 (12%)

18 (11%)

Ascites

16 (11%)

15 (9%)

Muscle spasms

13 (9%)

11 (7%)

Pruritus

13 (9%)

10 (6%)

Abdominal pain

12 (9%)

13 (8%)

Anemia

11 (8%)

6 (4%)

Depression

10 (7%)

8 (5%)

Nasopharyngitis

10 (7%)

10 (6%)

Abdominal pain upper

9 (6%)

8 (5%)

Arthralgia

9 (6%)

4 (3%)

Dyspnea

9 (6%)

7 (4%)

Pyrexia

9 (6%)

5 (3%)

Rash

7 (5%)

6 (4%)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea

The safety of XIFAXAN for the treatment of IBS-D was evaluated in 3 placebo-controlled studies in which 952 patients were randomized to XIFAXAN 550 mg three times a day for 14 days. Across the 3 studies, 96% of patients received at least 14 days of treatment with XIFAXAN. In Trials 1 and 2, 624 patients received only one 14-day treatment. Trial 3 evaluated the safety of XIFAXAN in 328 patients who received 1 open-label treatment and 2 double-blind repeat treatments of 14 days each over a period of up to 46 weeks. The combined population studied had a mean age of 47 (range: 18 to 88) years of whom approximately 11% of the patients were 65 years old, 72% were female, 88% were White, 9% were Black and 12% were Hispanic.

The adverse reaction that occurred at a frequency 2% in XIFAXAN-treated patients at a higher rate than placebo in Trials 1 and 2 for IBS-D was:

nausea (3% XIFAXAN, 2% placebo)

The adverse reactions that occurred at a frequency >2% in XIFAXAN-treated patients (n=328) at a higher rate than placebo (n=308) in Trial 3 for IBS-D during the double-blind treatment phase were:

ALT increased (XIFAXAN 2%, placebo 1%)
nausea (XIFAXAN 2%, placebo 1%)

Less Common Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions, presented by body system, were reported in less than 2% of patients in clinical trials of TD and IBS-D and in less than 5% of patients in clinical trials of HE:

Hepatobiliary disorders: Clostridium colitis

Investigations: Increased blood creatine phosphokinase

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: myalgia

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