Xopenex HFA

XOPENEX HFA- levalbuterol tartrate aerosol, metered
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Bronchospasm

XOPENEX HFA is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in adults, adolescents, and children 4 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Recommended Dosages

The recommended dosage of XOPENEX HFA for adults and children 4 years of age and older is 2 inhalations (90 mcg of levalbuterol free base) repeated every 4 to 6 hours; in some patients, 1 inhalation (45 mcg of levalbuterol free base) every 4 hours may be sufficient. More frequent administration or a larger number of inhalations is not routinely recommended.

If a previously effective dosage regimen fails to provide the usual response, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and the treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment, e.g., corticosteroids.

2.2 Administration Information

For oral inhalation only

  • Shake well before use.
  • Avoid spraying in the eyes.
  • Prime the inhaler before using for the first time and when the inhaler has not been used for more than 3 days by releasing 4 test sprays into the air, away from the face.
  • To maintain proper use of XOPENEX HFA, it is critical to wash the actuator with warm water and air-dry thoroughly at least once a week. The inhaler may cease to deliver levalbuterol tartrate if not properly cleaned and dried thoroughly. Keep the plastic actuator clean to prevent medication build-up and blockage. If the actuator becomes blocked with levalbuterol tartrate, wash the actuator to remove the blockage.
  • The canister is fitted with a dose indicator, which indicates how many inhalations remain. The dose indicator display will move after every tenth actuation. When nearing the end of the usable inhalations, the color behind the number in the dose indicator window changes to red. Discard the inhaler when the dose indicator display window shows zero, corresponding to the use of 200 actuations.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Inhalation aerosol: XOPENEX HFA is a pressurized, metered dose aerosol.

Each XOPENEX HFA 15 gram canister contains 200 metered actuations (or inhalations).

Each canister is fitted with a dose indicator and is supplied with a blue plastic actuator mouthpiece and a red mouthpiece cap. After priming, each actuation of the inhaler delivers 59 mcg of levalbuterol tartrate (equivalent to 45 mcg of levalbuterol free base) from the actuator mouthpiece.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

XOPENEX HFA is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to levalbuterol, racemic albuterol, or any other component of XOPENEX HFA. Reactions have included urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Paradoxical Bronchospasm

XOPENEX HFA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, XOPENEX HFA should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister.

5.2 Deterioration of Asthma

Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or longer. If the patient needs more doses of XOPENEX HFA than usual, this may be a marker of destabilization of asthma and requires reevaluation of the patient and treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment, e.g., corticosteroids.

5.3 Use of Anti-Inflammatory Agents

The use of a beta-adrenergic agonist alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents, e.g., corticosteroids, to the therapeutic regimen.

5.4 Cardiovascular Effects

XOPENEX HFA, like other beta-adrenergic agonists, can produce clinically significant cardiovascular effects in some patients, as measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of XOPENEX HFA at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, such as flattening of the T-wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Therefore, XOPENEX HFA, like all sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

5.5 Do Not Exceed Recommended Dose

Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest following an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected.

5.6 Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions

Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of racemic albuterol, as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema. The potential for hypersensitivity must be considered in the clinical evaluation of patients who experience immediate hypersensitivity reactions while receiving XOPENEX HFA.

5.7 Coexisting Conditions

XOPENEX HFA, like all sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias; in patients with convulsive disorders, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes mellitus; and in patients who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Clinically significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been seen in individual patients and could be expected to occur in some patients after the use of any beta-adrenergic bronchodilator.

Large doses of intravenous racemic albuterol have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.

5.8 Hypokalemia

As with other beta-adrenergic agonist medications, XOPENEX HFA may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Use of XOPENEX HFA may be associated with the following:

  • Paradoxical bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
  • Cardiovascular effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
  • Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
  • Hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older

Adverse reaction information concerning XOPENEX HFA in adults and adolescents is derived from two 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled trials in 748 adult and adolescent patients with asthma that compared XOPENEX HFA, a marketed albuterol HFA inhaler, and an HFA-134a placebo inhaler. Table 1 lists the incidence of all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be related or unrelated to drug) from these trials that occurred at a rate of 2% or greater in the group treated with XOPENEX HFA and more frequently than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.

Table 1: Adverse Reaction Incidence (% of Patients) in Two 8-Week Clinical Trials in Adults and Adolescents ≥ 12 Years of Age*

* This table includes all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be related or unrelated to drug) from these trials that occurred at a rate of 2% or greater in the group treated with XOPENEX HFA and more frequently than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.

Body System Preferred Term XOPENEX HFA90 mcg(n=403) Racemic AlbuterolHFA180 mcg(n=179) Placebo(n=166)
Respiratory System Asthma 9% 7% 6%
Pharyngitis 8% 2% 2%
Rhinitis 7% 2% 3%
Body as a Whole Pain 4% 3% 4%
Central Nervous System Dizziness 3% 1% 2%

Adverse reactions reported by less than 2% and at least 2 or more of the adolescent and adult patients receiving XOPENEX HFA and by a greater proportion than receiving HFA-134a placebo inhaler include cyst, flu syndrome, viral infection, constipation, gastroenteritis, myalgia, hypertension, epistaxis, lung disorder, acne, herpes simplex, conjunctivitis, ear pain, dysmenorrhea, hematuria, and vaginal moniliasis. There were no significant laboratory abnormalities observed in these studies.

Pediatric Patients 4 to 11 Years of Age

Adverse reaction information concerning XOPENEX HFA in children is derived from a 4-week, randomized, double-blind trial of XOPENEX HFA, a marketed albuterol HFA inhaler, and an HFA-134a placebo inhaler in 150 children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma. Table 2 lists the adverse reactions reported for XOPENEX HFA in children at a rate of 2% or greater and more frequently than for placebo.

Table 2: Adverse Reaction Incidence (% of Patients) in a 4-Week Clinical Trial in Children 4-11 Years of Age*

* This table includes all adverse reactions (whether considered by the investigator to be related or unrelated to drug) from the trial that occurred at a rate of 2% or greater in the group treated with XOPENEX HFA and more frequently than in the HFA-134a placebo inhaler group.

Body System Preferred Term XOPENEX HFA90 mcg(n=76) Racemic Albuterol HFA180 mcg(n=39) Placebo(n=35)
Digestive System Vomiting 11% 8% 6%
Body as a Whole Accidental injury 9% 10% 6%
Respiratory System Pharyngitis 7% 13% 6%
Bronchitis 3% 0% 0%

The incidence of systemic beta-adrenergic adverse reactions (e.g., tremor, nervousness) was low and comparable across all treatment groups, including placebo.

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