Use of XTAMPZA ER as the First Opioid Analgesic (Opioid-Naïve Patients)
Initiate treatment with XTAMPZA ER with one 9 mg capsule orally every 12 hours with food.
Use of XTAMPZA ER in Patients who are not Opioid Tolerant
The starting dose for patients who are not opioid tolerant is XTAMPZA ER 9 mg orally every 12 hours with food.
Use of higher starting doses in patients who are not opioid tolerant may cause fatal respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Conversion from other Oral Oxycodone Formulations to XTAMPZA ER
Patients receiving other oral oxycodone formulations, may be converted to XTAMPZA ER, using the same total daily dose of oxycodone, by administering one-half of the patient’s total daily oral oxycodone dose as XTAMPZA ER every 12 hours with food. Because XTAMPZA ER is not bioequivalent to other oxycodone extended-release products, monitor patients for possible dosage adjustment [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Conversion from other Opioids to XTAMPZA ER
Discontinue all other around-the-clock opioid drugs when XTAMPZA ER therapy is initiated.
There are no established conversion ratios for conversion from other opioids to XTAMPZA ER defined by clinical trials. Initiate dosing using XTAMPZA ER 9 mg orally every 12 hours with food.
It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour oral oxycodone dosage and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour oral oxycodone dosage and manage adverse reactions due to an overdose. While useful tables of opioid equivalents are readily available, there is substantial inter-patient variability in the relative potency of different opioid drugs and products.
Conversion from Methadone to XTAMPZA ER
Close monitoring is of particular importance when converting from methadone to other opioid agonists. The ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists may vary widely as a function of previous dose exposure. Methadone has a long half-life and can accumulate in the plasma.
Conversion from Transdermal Fentanyl to XTAMPZA ER
Eighteen hours following the removal of the transdermal fentanyl patch, XTAMPZA ER treatment can be initiated. Although there has been no systematic assessment of such conversion, a conservative oxycodone dose, approximately 9 mg (equivalent to 10 mg oxycodone HCl) every 12 hours of XTAMPZA ER, should be initially substituted for each 25 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patch. Follow the patient closely during conversion from transdermal fentanyl to XTAMPZA ER, as there is limited documented experience with this conversion.
For patients with hepatic impairment, start dosing patients at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual starting dose followed by careful dose titration. Monitor closely for adverse events such as respiratory depression. Use of alternate analgesics is recommended for patients who require an XTAMPZA ER dose of less than 9 mg. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Individually titrate XTAMPZA ER to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving XTAMPZA ER to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During chronic therapy, periodically reassess the continued need for the use of opioid analgesics.
Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dose increase of XTAMPZA ER or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dose stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the XTAMPZA ER dose. Because steady-state plasma concentrations are approximated in 1 to 2 days, XTAMPZA ER dosage may be adjusted every 1 to 2 days. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, the subsequent dose may be reduced. Adjust the dose to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid- related adverse reactions.
There are no well-controlled clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy with dosing more frequently than every 12 hours. As a guideline, the total daily oxycodone dose usually can be increased by 25% to 50% of the current dose, each time an increase is clinically indicated.
If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, the subsequent dosages may be reduced. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.
Do not abruptly discontinue XTAMPZA ER in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances.
When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking XTAMPZA ER, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the dose of XTAMPZA ER the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with co- morbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist.
There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on XTAMPZA ER who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper.
It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, monitor patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances.
When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for a long duration and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Instruct patients to always take XTAMPZA ER capsules with food and with approximately the same amount of food in order to ensure consistent plasma levels are achieved [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
For patients who have difficulty swallowing, XTAMPZA ER can also be taken by sprinkling the capsule contents on soft foods or sprinkling the contents into a cup and then administering directly into the mouth or through a gastrostomy or nasogastric feeding tube. Patients who are unable to swallow a capsule should be instructed to:
- Open the capsule.
- Sprinkle the capsule contents (microspheres) onto a small amount of soft food (e.g., applesauce, pudding, yogurt, ice cream, or jam) or into a cup and then administer directly into the mouth and swallow immediately.
- Rinse the mouth to ensure all capsule contents (microspheres) have been swallowed.
- Discard the XTAMPZA ER capsule shells after the contents have been sprinkled on soft food or into a cup and then administered directly into the mouth.
The contents of the XTAMPZA ER capsules (microspheres) may be administered through a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube. When administering XTAMPZA ER through a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube:
- Flush the tube with water.
- Open an XTAMPZA ER capsule and carefully pour the microspheres directly into the tube. Do not pre-mix the capsule contents with the liquid that you will be using to flush them through the tube.
- Draw up 15 mL of water into a syringe, insert the syringe into the tube, and flush the microspheres through the tube.
- Repeat the flushing two more times, each with 10 mL of water, to ensure no microspheres remain in the tube.
Alternatively, milk or liquid nutritional supplement may be used as vehicles for flush and administration through feeding tubes.
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