Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of XTAMPZA ER was evaluated in a Phase 3, randomized-withdrawal, double-blind clinical trial involving 740 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic lower back pain. In the double-blind maintenance phase, 389 patients were randomized and 193 patients were assigned to the XTAMPZA ER treatment group.
The most common AEs (>5%) reported by patients in the Phase 3 clinical trial during the titration phase were: nausea (16.6%), headache (13.9%), constipation (13.0%), somnolence (8.8%), pruritus (7.4%), vomiting (6.4%), and dizziness (5.7%).
The most common adverse reactions (>5%) reported by patients in the Phase 3 clinical trial comparing XTAMPZA ER with placebo are shown in Table 1 below:
|Adverse Reaction||XTAMPZA ER(n = 740)(%)||XTAMPZA ER(n = 193)(%)||Placebo(n = 196)(%)|
In the Phase 3 clinical trial, the following adverse reactions were reported in patients treated with XTAMPZA ER with incidences of 1% to 5%:
Eye disorders: vision blurred
Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain, upper abdominal pain, diarrhea, gastroesophageal reflux disease
General disorders and administration site conditions: chills, drug withdrawal syndrome, fatigue, irritability, edema, pyrexia
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: excoriation
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: decreased appetite, hyperglycemia
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: arthralgia, back pain, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia
Nervous system disorders: migraine, tremor
Psychiatric disorders: anxiety, insomnia, withdrawal syndrome
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: cough, oropharyngeal pain
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: hyperhidrosis, rash
Vascular disorders: hot flush, hypertension
In the Phase 3 clinical trial, the following treatment-related adverse reactions were reported in patients treated with XTAMPZA ER with incidences of less than 1% of patients.
Investigations: increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased heart rate
Nervous system disorders: lethargy, memory impairment, poor-quality sleep
Psychiatric disorders: abnormal dreams, euphoric mood, restlessness
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: night sweats
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of oxycodone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Anaphylaxis: Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in XTAMPZA ER.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Table 2 includes clinically significant drug interactions with XTAMPZA ER.
|Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of XTAMPZA ER and CYP3A4 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of oxycodone, resulting in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of XTAMPZA ER and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitors, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of XTAMPZA ER is achieved [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will decrease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider dosage reduction of XTAMPZA ER until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the XTAMPZA ER dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.|
|Examples:||Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of XTAMPZA ER and CYP3A4 inducers can decrease the plasma concentration of oxycodone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence to oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is necessary, consider increasing the XTAMPZA ER dosage until stable drug effects are achieved [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal. If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider XTAMPZA ER dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression.|
|Examples:||Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin|
|Benzodiazepines and other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants|
|Clinical Impact:||Due to additive pharmacological effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants including alcohol, increases the risk of respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.|
|Intervention:||Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].|
|Examples||Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention:||If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue XTAMPZA ER if serotonin syndrome is suspected.|
|Examples:||Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that effect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).|
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
|Clinical Impact:||MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].|
|Intervention:||The use of XTAMPZA ER is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.|
|Examples:||phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid|
|Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics|
|Clinical Impact:||May reduce the analgesic effect of XTAMPZA ER and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.|
|Intervention:||Avoid concomitant use.|
|Examples:||Butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine|
|Clinical Impact:||Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of XTAMPZA ER and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.|
|Clinical Impact:||Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.|
|Clinical Impact:||The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.|
|Intervention:||Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when XTAMPZA ER is used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.|
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