Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data provided reflect the experience with the use of Yasmin (3 mg DRSP/0.03 mg EE) in the adequate and well-controlled studies for contraception (N=2,837). The US pivotal clinical study (N=326) was a multicenter, open-label trial in healthy women aged 18 -35 who were treated for up to 13 cycles. The second pivotal study (N=442)was a multicenter, randomized, open-label comparative European study of Yasmin vs. 0.150 mg desogestrel/0.03 mg EE conducted in healthy women aged 17-40 who were treated for up to 26 cycles.
The most common adverse reactions (≥ 2% of users) were: premenstrual syndrome (13.2%), headache/migraine (10.7%), breast pain/tenderness/discomfort (8.3%), nausea/vomiting (4.5%) abdominal pain/discomfort/tenderness (2.3%) and mood changes (depression, depressed mood, irritability, mood swings, mood altered and affect lability (2.3%).
Adverse Reactions (≥ 1%) Leading to Study Discontinuation:
Of 2,837 women, 6.7% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reaction leading to discontinuation was headache/migraine (1.5%).
Serious Adverse Reactions:
Depression, pulmonary embolism, toxic skin eruption, and uterine leiomyoma.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Yasmin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions, including fatalities, are grouped into System Organ Classes and ordered by frequency.
Vascular disorders: Venous and arterial thromboembolic events (including pulmonary emboli, deep vein thrombosis, intracardiac thrombosis, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, sagittal sinus thrombosis, retinal vein occlusion, myocardial infarction and stroke), hypertension
Hepatobiliary disorders: Gallbladder disease
Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Hyperkalemia
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Chloasma
Consult the labeling of all concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations.
Substances diminishing the efficacy of COCs: Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the effectiveness of COCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampin, topiramate and products containing St. John’s wort. Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with COCs, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability.
Substances increasing the plasma concentrations of COCs: Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain COCs containing EE increase AUC values for EE by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma EE concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation.
Concomitant administration of moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as azole antifungals (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole), verapamil, macrolides (e.g., clarithromycin, erythromycin), diltiazem, and grapefruit juice can increase the plasma concentrations of the estrogen or the progestin or both. In a clinical drug-drug interaction study conducted in premenopausal women, once daily co-administration of DRSP 3 mg/EE 0.02 mg containing tablets with strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 10 days resulted in a moderate increase of DRSP systemic exposure. The exposure of EE was increased mildly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Significant changes (increase or decrease) in the plasma concentrations of estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV/HCV protease inhibitors or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Antibiotics: There have been reports of pregnancy while taking hormonal contraceptives and antibiotics, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of antibiotics on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids.
COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations.
COCs Increasing the Plasma Concentrations of CYP450 Enzymes: In clinical studies, administration of a hormonal contraceptive containing EE did not lead to any increase or only to a weak increase in plasma concentrations of CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., midazolam) while plasma concentrations of CYP2C19 substrates (e.g., omeprazole and voriconazole) and CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline and tizanidine) can have a weak or moderate increase.
Clinical studies did not indicate an inhibitory potential of DRSP towards human CYP enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Women on thyroid hormone replacement therapy may need increased doses of thyroid hormone because serum concentration of thyroid-binding globulin increases with use of COCs.
Potential to Increase Serum Potassium Concentration: There is a potential for an increase in serum potassium concentration in women taking Yasmin with other drugs that may increase serum potassium concentration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins. DRSP causes an increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone induced by its mild anti-mineralocorticoid activity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Drug Interactions (7.2)].
There is little or no increased risk of birth defects in women who inadvertently use COCs during early pregnancy. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have not found an increased risk of genital or non-genital birth defects (including cardiac anomalies and limb-reduction defects) following exposure to low dose COCs prior to conception or during early pregnancy.
The administration of COCs to induce withdrawal bleeding should not be used as a test for pregnancy. COCs should not be used during pregnancy to treat threatened or habitual abortion.
Women who do not breastfeed may start COCs no earlier than four weeks postpartum.
When possible, advise the nursing mother to use other forms of contraception until she has weaned her child. Estrogen-containing COCs can reduce milk production in breastfeeding mothers. This is less likely to occur once breastfeeding is well-established; however, it can occur at any time in some women. Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids and/or metabolites are present in breast milk.
After oral administration of Yasmin, about 0.02% of the DRSP dose was excreted into the breast milk of postpartum women within 24 hours. This results in a maximal daily dose of about 0.003 mg DRSP in an infant.
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