COCs containing EE may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. COCs have been shown to significantly decrease plasma concentrations of lamotrigine, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control; therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Consult the labeling of the concurrently-used drug to obtain further information about interactions with COCs or the potential for enzyme alterations.
In vitro and clinical studies did not indicate an inhibitory potential of DRSP towards human CYP450 enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There is little or no increased risk of birth defects in women who inadvertently use COCs during early pregnancy. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have not found an increased risk of genital or non-genital birth defects (including cardiac anomalies and limb-reduction defects) following exposure to low dose COCs prior to conception or during early pregnancy.
The administration of COCs to induce withdrawal bleeding should not be used as a test for pregnancy. COCs should not be used during pregnancy to treat threatened or habitual abortion.
Women who do not breastfeed may start COCs no earlier than four weeks postpartum.
When possible, advise the nursing mother to use other forms of contraception until she has weaned her child. Estrogen-containing COCs can reduce milk production in breastfeeding mothers. This is less likely to occur once breastfeeding is well-established; however, it can occur at any time in some women. Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids and/or metabolites are present in breast milk.
After oral administration of 3 mg DRSP/0.03 mg EE (Yasmin) tablets, about 0.02% of the DRSP dose was excreted into the breast milk of postpartum women within 24 hours. This results in a maximal daily dose of about 0.003 mg DRSP in an infant.
Safety and efficacy of Yaz has been established in women of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy are expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 18 and for users 18 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated.
Yaz has not been studied in postmenopausal women and is not indicated in this population.
In subjects with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance CLcr, 50–80 mL/min), serum DRSP levels were comparable to those in subjects with normal renal function (CLcr, >80 mL/min). In subjects with moderate renal impairment (CLcr, 30–50 mL/min), serum DRSP levels were on average 37% higher than those in the group with normal renal function. In addition, there is a potential to develop hyperkalemia in subjects with renal impairment whose serum potassium is in the upper reference range, and who are concomitantly using potassium sparing drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Yaz is contraindicated in patients with hepatic disease [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] . The mean exposure to DRSP in women with moderate liver impairment is approximately three times higher than the exposure in women with normal liver function. Yaz has not been studied in women with severe hepatic impairment.
There have been no reports of serious ill effects from overdose, including ingestion by children. Overdosage may cause withdrawal bleeding in females and nausea.
DRSP is a spironolactone analogue which has antimineralocorticoid properties. Serum concentration of potassium and sodium, and evidence of metabolic acidosis, should be monitored in cases of overdose.
Yaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol tablets) provides an oral contraceptive regimen consisting of 24 light pink active film-coated tablets each containing 3 mg of drospirenone and 0.02 mg of ethinyl estradiol stabilized by betadex as a clathrate (molecular inclusion complex) and 4 white inert film coated tablets.
The inactive ingredients in the light pink tablets are lactose monohydrate NF, corn starch NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose USP, talc USP, titanium dioxide USP, ferric oxide pigment, red NF. The white inert film-coated tablets contain lactose monohydrate NF, corn starch NF, povidone 25000 USP, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose USP, talc USP, titanium dioxide USP.
Drospirenone (6R,7R,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,15S,16S,17S)-1,3’,4’,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11, 12,13,14,15,15a,16-hexadecahydro-10,13-dimethylspiro-[17H-dicyclopropa- [6,7:15,16]cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-17,2’(5H)-furan]-3,5’(2H)-dione) is a synthetic progestational compound and has a molecular weight of 366.5 and a molecular formula of C24H30O3.
Ethinyl estradiol (19-nor-17α-pregna 1,3,5(10)-triene-20-yne-3, 17-diol) is a synthetic estrogenic compound and has a molecular weight of 296.4 and a molecular formula of C20 H24 O2 .
The structural formulas are as follows:
COCs lower the risk of becoming pregnant primarily by suppressing ovulation. Other possible mechanisms may include cervical mucus changes that inhibit sperm penetration and the endometrial changes that reduce the likelihood of implantation.
Drospirenone is a spironolactone analogue with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. The estrogen in Yaz is ethinyl estradiol.
Two studies evaluated the effect of 3 mg DRSP / 0.02 mg EE combinations on the suppression of ovarian activity as assessed by measurement of follicle size via transvaginal ultrasound and serum hormone (progesterone and estradiol) analyses during two treatment cycles (21-day active tablet period plus 7-day pill-free period). More than 90% of subjects in these studies demonstrated ovulation inhibition. One study compared the effect of 3 mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE combinations with two different regimens (24-day active tablet period plus 4-day pill-free period vs. 21-day active tablet period plus 7-day pill-free period) on the suppression of ovarian activity during two treatment cycles. During the first treatment cycle, there were no subjects (0/49, 0%) taking the 24-day regimen who ovulated compared to 1 subject (1/50, 2%) using the 21-day regimen. After intentionally introduced dosing errors (3 missed active tablets on Days 1 to 3) during the second treatment cycle, there was 1 subject (1/49, 2%) taking the 24-day regimen who ovulated compared to 4 subjects (4/50, 8%) using the 21-day regimen.
Acne vulgaris is a skin condition with a multifactorial etiology including androgen stimulation of sebum production. While the combination of EE and DRSP increases sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and decreases free testosterone, the relationship between these changes and a decrease in the severity of facial acne in otherwise healthy women with this skin condition has not been established. The impact of the antiandrogenic activity of DRSP on acne is not known.
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