The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of YONDELIS. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Vascular disorders: capillary leak syndrome
Coadministration of YONDELIS with ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, increased systemic exposure of trabectedin by 66%. Avoid using strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., oral ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, clarithromycin, telithromycin, indinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, boceprevir, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telaprevir, nefazodone, conivaptan) in patients taking YONDELIS. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor for short-term use (i.e., less than 14 days) must be used, administer the strong CYP3A inhibitor 1 week after the YONDELIS infusion, and discontinue it the day prior to the next YONDELIS infusion [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Coadministration of YONDELIS with rifampin, a strong CYP3A inducer, decreased systemic exposure of trabectedin by 31%. Avoid using strong CYP3A inducers (e.g., rifampin, phenobarbital, St. John’s wort) in patients taking YONDELIS [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Based on its mechanism of action, trabectedin can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data with the use of YONDELIS during pregnancy. Animal reproductive and developmental studies at relevant doses have not been conducted with trabectedin; however, placental transfer of trabectedin was demonstrated in pregnant rats. Advise pregnant woman of the potential risk to a fetus. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown; however, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2 to 4% and of miscarriage is 15 to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
There are no data on the presence of trabectedin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from YONDELIS in breastfed infants, advise a nursing woman to discontinue nursing during treatment with YONDELIS.
Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating YONDELIS [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during and for 2 months after the last dose of YONDELIS [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
YONDELIS may damage spermatozoa, resulting in possible genetic and fetal abnormalities. Advise males with a female sexual partner of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during and for 5 months after the last dose of YONDELIS [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
YONDELIS may result in decreased fertility in males and females [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Safety (n=61) and efficacy (n=58) were assessed across five open-label studies (NCT00006463, NCT01453283, NCT00005625, NCT00070109, and ET-B-023-00) in pediatric patients (aged 2 to <17 years) with pediatric histotypes of sarcoma (predominantly rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma). No new safety signals were observed in pediatric patients across these studies.
Pharmacokinetic parameters in 17 pediatric patients (aged 3 to 17 years) were within the range of values previously observed in adults given the same dose per body surface area.
Clinical studies of YONDELIS did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
The mean trabectedin exposure was (97%) higher in patients with moderate (bilirubin levels greater than 1.5 to 3 times the upper limit of normal, and AST and ALT less than 8 times the upper limit of normal) hepatic impairment compared to patients with normal (total bilirubin ≤ the upper limit of normal, and AST and ALT ≤ the upper limit of normal) liver function. Reduce YONDELIS dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Do not administer YONDELIS to patients with severe hepatic impairment (bilirubin levels above 3 times the upper limit of normal, and any AST and ALT) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild [creatinine clearance (CLcr) 60–89 mL/min] or moderate (CLcr of 30–59 mL/min) renal impairment.
The pharmacokinetics of trabectedin has not been evaluated in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min) or end stage renal disease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There is no specific antidote for YONDELIS. Hemodialysis is not expected to enhance the elimination of YONDELIS because trabectedin is highly bound to plasma proteins (97%) and not significantly renally excreted.
Trabectedin is an alkylating drug with the chemical name (1′R ,6R ,6aR ,7R ,13S ,14S ,16R)-5-(acetyloxy)-3′,4′,6,6a,7,13,14,16-octahydro-6′,8,14-trihydroxy-7′,9-dimethoxy-4,10,23-trimethyl-spiro[6,16-(epithiopropanoxymethano)-7,13-imino-12H -1,3-dioxolo[7,8]isoquino[3,2-b ]benzazocine-20,1′(2′H)-isoquinolin]-19-one. The molecular formula is C39 H43 N3 O11 S. The molecular weight is 761.84 daltons. The chemical structure is shown below:
Trabectedin is hydrophobic and has a low solubility in water.
YONDELIS (trabectedin) for injection is supplied as a sterile lyophilized white to off-white powder/cake in a single-dose vial. Each single-dose vial contains 1 mg of trabectedin, 27.2 mg potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 400 mg sucrose, and phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide (for pH adjustment to 3.6 – 4.2).
Trabectedin is an alkylating drug that binds guanine residues in the minor groove of DNA, forming adducts and resulting in a bending of the DNA helix towards the major groove. Adduct formation triggers a cascade of events that can affect the subsequent activity of DNA binding proteins, including some transcription factors, and DNA repair pathways, resulting in perturbation of the cell cycle and eventual cell death.
The effect of trabectedin on the QT/QTc interval was evaluated in 75 patients who received placebo on day 1 and trabectedin (1.3 mg/m2) as a 3-hour intravenous infusion on day 2. No patients in the study showed a QTc interval exceeding 500 msec or more than 60 msec increase from baseline, and no large changes in the mean QTc interval (i.e., >20 msec) were observed.
The pharmacokinetics of trabectedin is characterized by a rapid decline phase at the end of the infusion and slower exponential phases. Population pharmacokinetic analyses suggest that the pharmacokinetics of trabectedin is dose-proportional (over the dose range of 0.024 to 1.8 mg/m2) and exposure is time-independent. No accumulation of trabectedin in plasma is observed upon repeated administrations every 3 weeks.
Binding of trabectedin to human plasma proteins was approximately 97%, independent of trabectedin concentrations ranging from 10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL. Steady state volume of distribution of trabectedin exceeds 5000 L.
The estimated mean (% coefficient of variation) clearance of trabectedin is 31.5 L/hr (50%) and the terminal elimination half-life is approximately 175 hours.
CYP3A is the predominant CYP enzyme responsible for the hepatic metabolism of trabectedin.
Trabectedin was extensively metabolized with negligible unchanged drug in urine and feces following administration of trabectedin to humans.
In patients with solid tumors, following a 3-hour or a 24-hour intravenous infusion of 14 C-labeled trabectedin, 64% of the total administered radioactive dose was recovered in 24 days, with 58% in feces and 6% in urine.
The following population characteristics are not associated with a clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of trabectedin: sex, age (19 to 83 years), body weight (36 to 148 kg), body surface area (0.9 to 2.8 m2), mild hepatic impairment, or mild to moderate renal impairment. The effects of severe hepatic impairment, severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease on trabectedin exposure are unknown.
The geometric mean dose normalized trabectedin exposure (AUC) increased by 97% (90% CI: 20%, 222%) in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (bilirubin levels greater than 1.5 times to 3 times the upper limit of normal and AST and ALT less than 8 times the upper limit of normal) following administration of a single YONDELIS dose of 0.58 mg/m2 or 0.9 mg/m2 compared to patients with normal liver function following administration of a single YONDELIS dose of 1.3 mg/m2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Effect of Strong CYP3A Inhibitors on Trabectedin
Coadministration of multiple doses of ketoconazole (200 mg twice daily for 7.5 days) with a single dose of YONDELIS (0.58 mg/m2) on day 1 increased trabectedin dose-normalized AUC by 66% and Cmax by 22% compared to a single YONDELIS dose (1.3 mg/m2) given alone.
Effect of Strong CYP3A Inducers on Trabectedin
Coadministration of multiple doses of rifampin (600 mg daily for 6 days) with a single YONDELIS dose (1.3 mg/m2) on day 6 decreased trabectedin AUC by 31% and Cmax by 21% compared to a single YONDELIS dose (1.3 mg/m2) given alone.
Effect of Trabectedin on CYP Enzymes
In vitro , trabectedin has limited inhibition or induction potential of major CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4).
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