Yosprala (Page 4 of 9)

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Use of NSAIDs, including YOSPRALA, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including YOSPRALA, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester). There are no available data with YOSPRALA use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associate risk for major birth defects and miscarriage; however, there are published studies with each individual component of YOSPRALA.

Aspirin

Data from controlled and observational studies with aspirin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with major birth defects or miscarriage risk. However, NSAIDs, including aspirin, a component of YOSPRALA, may increase the risk of complications during labor or delivery and to the neonate [see Clinical Considerations and Data]. In animal reproduction studies, there were adverse developmental effects with oral administration of aspirin to pregnant rats at doses 15 to 19 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 325 mg/day. Aspirin did not produce adverse developmental effects in rabbits [see Data].

Omeprazole

Data from epidemiological and observational studies with omeprazole have not reported a clear association with major birth defects or miscarriage risk. Animal reproduction studies in pregnant rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at omeprazole doses that were approximately 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg.

Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age [see Data].

The estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

Maternal aspirin use during the third trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of neonatal complications, including necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants, low birth weight, stillbirth and neonatal death.

Maternal Adverse Reactions

An increased incidence of post-term pregnancy and longer duration of pregnancy in women taking aspirin has been reported. Avoid maternal use of aspirin, including Yosprala, in pregnant women during the third trimester.

Labor or Delivery

Aspirin, a component of YOSPRALA, should be avoided 1 week prior to and during labor and delivery because it can result in excessive blood loss at delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including aspirin, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Data

Human Data

Aspirin

Data from several controlled and observational studies with aspirin use in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy have not reported a clear association with major birth defects or miscarriage risk. Published data on aspirin use during pregnancy has been mostly reported with low dose aspirin (60 to 100 mg). There are limited data regarding aspirin 325 mg or higher doses used during pregnancy.

A prospective, cohort study of 50,282 mother-child pairs (the Collaborative Perinatal Project) assessing adverse outcomes by level of aspirin exposure did not report aspirin-induced teratogenicity, altered neonatal birth weight, or perinatal deaths at any exposure level. In a controlled, randomized trial, maternal risks during pregnancy were reported as low or absent, with no demonstrated increased risk of maternal bleeding or placental abruptio. A multinational study involving more than 9,000 women, CLASP (Collaborative Low-dose Aspirin Study in Pregnancy)], found that low-dose aspirin reduced fetal morbidity in a select population of women with early-onset preeclampsia, but did not identify adverse effects in the pregnant woman, fetus, or newborn (followed to 12 and 18 months of age) in association with the use of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy. In contrast, some case-control studies reported associations between human congenital malformations and aspirin use early in gestation, but these studies did not report a consistent outcome attributable to drug use.

A report from EAGeR trial (Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial), which evaluated 1078 women who were attempting to become pregnant and had prior miscarriages, reported use of low-dose aspirin without adverse maternal or fetal effects except for vaginal bleeding. Another trial of 3294 pregnant women of 14 to 20 weeks of gestation treated with aspirin showed no effect in the mothers’ incidence of pre-eclampsia, hypertension, HELLP syndrome or placental abruptio, or in the incidence of perinatal deaths or low birth weight below the 10th percentile. The incidence of maternal side effects was higher in the aspirin group, principally because of a significantly higher rate of hemorrhage.

Use of NSAIDs, including aspirin, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and use of high-dose aspirin for long periods in pregnancy may also increase the risk of bleeding in the brain of premature infants.

Omeprazole

Four published epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2 -receptor antagonists or other controls.

A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995 to 1999, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population.

A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837,317 live births whose mothers did not use any PPI. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester.

A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2 -blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively.

A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% with first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups.

Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia.

Animal Data

Aspirin

Aspirin produced a spectrum of developmental anomalies when administered to Wistar rats as single, large doses (500 to 625 mg/kg) on gestational day (GD) 9, 10, or 11. These doses (500 to 625 mg/kg) in rats are about 15 to 19 times the maximum recommended human dose of aspirin (325 mg/day) based on body surface area. Many of the anomalies were related to closure defects and included craniorachischisis, gastroschisis and umbilical hernia, and cleft lip, in addition to diaphragmatic hernia, heart malrotation, and supernumerary ribs and kidneys. In contrast to the rat, aspirin was not developmentally toxic in rabbits.

Omeprazole

Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) during organogenesis did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human doses of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), administered prior to mating through the lactation period.

Esomeprazole

The data described below was generated from studies using esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole.

No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) or in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis.

A pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis).

Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis).

Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in the pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis).

A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above.

A follow up developmental toxicity study in rats with further time points to evaluate pup bone development from postnatal day 2 to adulthood was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) where esomeprazole administration was from either gestational day 7 or gestational day 16 until parturition. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age.

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