There is no information about the presence of YOSPRALA in human milk; however, the individual components of YOSPRALA, aspirin and omeprazole, are present in human milk. Limited data from clinical lactation studies in published literature describe the presence of aspirin in human milk at relative infant doses of 2.5% to 10.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. Case reports of breastfeeding infants whose mothers were exposed to aspirin during lactation describe adverse reactions, including metabolic acidosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemolysis. There is no information on the effects of aspirin on milk production. Limited data from a case report in published literature describes the presence of omeprazole in human milk at a relative infant dose of 0.9% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage. There are no reports of adverse effects of omeprazole on the breastfed infant, and no information on the effects of omeprazole on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including the potential for aspirin to cause metabolic acidosis, thrombocytopenia, hemolysis or Reye’s syndrome, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with YOSPRALA.
It is not known if maternal exposure to aspirin during lactation increases the risk of Reye’s syndrome in breastfed infants. The direct use of aspirin in infants and children is associated with Reye’s syndrome, even at low plasma levels.
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including YOSPRALA, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also demonstrated a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including YOSPRALA, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
The safety and efficacy of YOSPRALA has not been established in pediatric patients. YOSPRALA is contraindicated in pediatric patients with suspected viral infections, with or without fever, because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome with concomitant use of aspirin in certain viral illnesses [see Contraindications (4)].
Juvenile Animal Data
In a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 17 to 67 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2) ].
Of the total number of patients who received YOSPRALA (n=900) in clinical trials, 62% were ≥65 years of age and 15% were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects and other reported clinical experience with aspirin and omeprazole has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dose reduction of YOSPRALA is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Avoid YOSPRALA in patients with severe renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate less than 10 mL/minute) due to the aspirin component [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Long-term moderate to high doses of aspirin may result in elevations in serum ALT levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Systemic exposure to omeprazole is increased in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Avoid YOSPRALA in patients with any degree of hepatic impairment.
In studies of healthy subjects, Asians had approximately a four-fold higher exposure to omeprazole than Caucasians. CYP2C19, a polymorphic enzyme, is involved in the metabolism of omeprazole. Approximately 15% to 20% of Asians are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Tests are available to identify a patient’s CYP2C19 genotype. Avoid use in Asian patients with unknown CYP2C19 genotype or those who are known to be poor metabolizers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
There is no clinical data on overdosage with YOSPRALA.
Salicylate toxicity may result from acute ingestion (overdose) or chronic intoxication. The early signs of salicylic overdose (salicylism), including tinnitus (ringing in the ears), occur at plasma concentrations approaching 200 mg/mL. Plasma concentrations of aspirin above 300 mg/mL are clearly toxic. Severe toxic effects are associated with levels above 400 mg/mL. A single lethal dose of aspirin in adults is not known with certainty but death may be expected at 30 g.
Signs and Symptoms: In acute overdose, severe acid-base and electrolyte disturbances may occur and are complicated by hyperthermia and dehydration. Respiratory alkalosis occurs early while hyperventilation is present, but is quickly followed by metabolic acidosis.
Treatment: Treatment consists primarily of supporting vital functions, increasing salicylate elimination, and correcting the acid-base disturbance. Gastric emptying and/or lavage is recommended as soon as possible after ingestion, even if the patient has vomited spontaneously. After lavage and/or emesis, administration of activated charcoal, as a slurry, is beneficial, if less than 3 hours have passed since ingestion. Charcoal adsorption should not be employed prior to emesis and lavage.
Severity of aspirin intoxication is determined by measuring the blood salicylate level. Serial salicylate levels should be obtained every 1 to 2 hours until concentrations have peaked and are declining. Acid-base status should be closely followed with serial blood gas and serum pH measurements. Fluid and electrolyte balance should also be maintained.
In severe cases, hyperthermia and hypovolemia are the major immediate threats to life. Children should be sponged with tepid water. Replacement fluid should be administered intravenously and augmented with correction of acidosis. Plasma electrolytes and pH should be monitored to promote alkaline diuresis of salicylate if renal function is normal. Infusion of glucose may be required to control hypoglycemia.
Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis can be performed to reduce the body drug content. In patients with renal impairment or in cases of life-threatening intoxication, dialysis is usually required. Exchange transfusion may be indicated in infants and young children.
Reports have been received of overdosage with omeprazole in humans. Doses ranged up to 2400 mg. Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen with recommended doses of omeprazole [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Symptoms were transient, and no serious clinical outcome has been reported when omeprazole was taken alone. No specific antidote for omeprazole overdosage is known. Omeprazole is extensively protein bound and is, therefore, not readily dialyzable. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.
If overexposure to YOSPRALA occurs, call your Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage.
The active ingredients of YOSPRALA are aspirin which is an antiplatelet agent and omeprazole which is a PPI.
YOSPRALA (aspirin and omeprazole) is an oval, blue-green, multi-layer film-coated, delayed-release tablet consists of an enteric coated delayed-release aspirin core surrounded by an immediate-release omeprazole layer for oral administration. Each delayed-release tablet contains either 81 mg aspirin and 40 mg omeprazole printed with 81/40, or 325 mg aspirin and 40 mg omeprazole printed with 325/40.
The excipients used in the formulation of YOSPRALA are all inactive and United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP/NF) defined. The inactive ingredients in YOSPRALA include: carnauba wax, colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, FD&C Blue #2, glyceryl monostearate, hydroxypropyl methycellulose, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, povidone, pre-gelatinized starch, sodium phosphate dibasic anhydrous, stearic acid, talc, titanium dioxide, triacetin, triethyl citrate, yellow iron oxide.
Aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid and is chemically known as benzoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy). Aspirin is an odorless white needle-like crystalline or powdery substance. When exposed to moisture, aspirin hydrolyzes into salicylic and acetic acids and gives off a vinegary odor. It is highly lipid soluble and slightly soluble in water. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet COX-1.
Omeprazole is a white to off-white crystalline powder which melts with decomposition at about 155°C. It is a weak base, freely soluble in ethanol and methanol, and slightly soluble in acetone and isopropanol and very slightly soluble in water. The stability of omeprazole is a function of pH; it is rapidly degraded in acid media, but has acceptable stability under alkaline conditions.
Omeprazole is a substituted benzimidazole, 5-methoxy-2-[[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl] sulfinyl]-1H — benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion.
The empirical formula of aspirin is C9 H8 O4 .
The empirical formula of omeprazole is C17 H19 N3 O3 S.
The molecular weight of aspirin is 180.16.
The molecular weight of omeprazole is 345.4.
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