Yuvafem (Page 4 of 10)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Yuvafem 25 mcg. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Genitourinary System

Endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, vaginal irritation, vaginal pain, vaginismus, vaginal ulceration

Breast

Breast cancer

Cardiovascular

Deep vein thrombosis

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea

Skin

Urticaria, erythematous or pruritic rash, genital pruritus

Central Nervous System

Aggravated migraine, depression, insomnia

Miscellaneous

Fluid retention, weight increase, drug ineffectiveness, hypersensitivity, blood estrogen increase

Additional postmarketing adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving other forms of hormone therapy.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

No drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted for Yuvafem.

7.1 Metabolic Interactions

In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4, such as St. John’s wort ( Hypericum perforatum) preparations, phenobarbital, carbamazepine and rifampin, may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Yuvafem should not be used during pregnancy [see Contraindications (4)]. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Yuvafem should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving estrogen therapy. Caution should be exercised when Yuvafem is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Yuvafem is not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population.

8.5 Geriatric Use

There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing Yuvafem to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Yuvafem.

The Women’s Health Initiative Studies

In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin when compared to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women 8 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Yuvafem has not been studied.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Yuvafem has not been studied.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, drowsiness and fatigue, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in women. Treatment of overdose consists of discontinuation of Yuvafem therapy with institution of appropriate symptomatic care.

11 DESCRIPTION

Yuvafem (estradiol vaginal inserts), 10 mcg, are small, white, film-coated insertts containing 10.3 mcg of estradiol hemihydrate equivalent to 10 mcg of estradiol, USP. Each Yuvafem, 10 mcg contains the following excipients: corn starch, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate and magnesium stearate. The film coating contains hypromellose and polyethylene glycol. Each Yuvafem vaginal insert is 6 mm in diameter and is placed in a disposable applicator. Each insert-filled applicator is packaged separately in a blister pack. Yuvafem are used intravaginally. When the insert comes in contact with the vaginal mucosa, estradiol, USP is released into the vagina.

USP Dissolution Test is pending.

Estradiol hemihydrate is a white, almost white or colorless crystalline solid, chemically described as estra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-3,17β-diol. The chemical formula is C 18 H 24 O 2 • ½ H 2 O with a molecular weight of 281.4.

The structural formula is:

9ec90e26-figure-01
(click image for full-size original)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol, at the receptor level.

The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. After menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone in the peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women.

Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. To date, two estrogen receptors have been identified. These vary in proportion from tissue to tissue.

Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and FSH, through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.

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