Zetia (Page 2 of 7)

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Monotherapy

In 10 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, 2396 patients with primary hyperlipidemia (age range 9–86 years, 50% women, 90% Caucasians, 5% Blacks, 3% Hispanics, 2% Asians) and elevated LDL-C were treated with ZETIA 10 mg/day for a median treatment duration of 12 weeks (range 0 to 39 weeks).

Adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients treated with ZETIA and at an incidence greater than placebo in placebo-controlled studies of ZETIA, regardless of causality assessment, are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1: Clinical Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥2% of Patients Treated with ZETIA and at an Incidence Greater than Placebo, Regardless of Causality
Body System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction ZETIA 10 mg (%)n = 2396 Placebo(%)n = 1159
Gastrointestinal disorders
Diarrhea 4.1 3.7
General disorders and administration site conditions
Fatigue 2.4 1.5
Infections and infestations
Influenza 2.0 1.5
Sinusitis 2.8 2.2
Upper respiratory tract infection 4.3 2.5
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia 3.0 2.2
Pain in extremity 2.7 2.5

The frequency of less common adverse reactions was comparable between ZETIA and placebo.

Combination with a Statin

In 28 double-blind, controlled (placebo or active-controlled) clinical trials, 11,308 patients with primary hyperlipidemia (age range 10–93 years, 48% women, 85% Caucasians, 7% Blacks, 4% Hispanics, 3% Asians) and elevated LDL-C were treated with ZETIA 10 mg/day concurrently with or added to on-going statin therapy for a median treatment duration of 8 weeks (range 0 to 112 weeks).

The incidence of consecutive increased transaminases (≥3 × ULN) was higher in patients receiving ZETIA administered with statins (1.3%) than in patients treated with statins alone (0.4%). [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2).]

Clinical adverse reactions reported in ≥2% of patients treated with ZETIA + statin and at an incidence greater than statin, regardless of causality assessment, are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2: Clinical Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥2% of Patients Treated with ZETIA Coadministered with a Statin and at an Incidence Greater than Statin, Regardless of Causality
*
All Statins = all doses of all statins
Body System/Organ Class Adverse Reaction All Statins *(%)n = 9361 ZETIA + All Statins *(%)n = 11,308
Gastrointestinal disorders
Diarrhea 2.2 2.5
General disorders and administration site conditions
Fatigue 1.6 2.0
Infections and infestations
Influenza 2.1 2.2
Nasopharyngitis 3.3 3.7
Upper respiratory tract infection 2.8 2.9
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia 2.4 2.6
Back pain 2.3 2.4
Myalgia 2.7 3.2
Pain in extremity 1.9 2.1

Combination with Fenofibrate

This clinical study involving 625 patients with mixed dyslipidemia (age range 20–76 years, 44% women, 79% Caucasians, 0.1% Blacks, 11% Hispanics, 5% Asians) treated for up to 12 weeks and 576 patients treated for up to an additional 48 weeks evaluated coadministration of ZETIA and fenofibrate. This study was not designed to compare treatment groups for infrequent events. Incidence rates (95% CI) for clinically important elevations (≥3 × ULN, consecutive) in hepatic transaminase levels were 4.5% (1.9, 8.8) and 2.7% (1.2, 5.4) for fenofibrate monotherapy (n=188) and ZETIA coadministered with fenofibrate (n=183), respectively, adjusted for treatment exposure. Corresponding incidence rates for cholecystectomy were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.0%, 3.1%) and 1.7% (95% CI: 0.6%, 4.0%) for fenofibrate monotherapy and ZETIA coadministered with fenofibrate, respectively [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]. The numbers of patients exposed to coadministration therapy as well as fenofibrate and ezetimibe monotherapy were inadequate to assess gallbladder disease risk. There were no CPK elevations >10 × ULN in any of the treatment groups.

6.2 Post-Marketing Experience

Because the reactions below are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ZETIA:

Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, and urticaria; erythema multiforme; arthralgia; myalgia; elevated creatine phosphokinase; myopathy/rhabdomyolysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] ; elevations in liver transaminases; hepatitis; abdominal pain; thrombocytopenia; pancreatitis; nausea; dizziness; paresthesia; depression; headache; cholelithiasis; cholecystitis.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

[See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]

7.1 Cyclosporine

Caution should be exercised when using ZETIA and cyclosporine concomitantly due to increased exposure to both ezetimibe and cyclosporine. Cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored in patients receiving ZETIA and cyclosporine.

The degree of increase in ezetimibe exposure may be greater in patients with severe renal insufficiency. In patients treated with cyclosporine, the potential effects of the increased exposure to ezetimibe from concomitant use should be carefully weighed against the benefits of alterations in lipid levels provided by ezetimibe.

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