The safety data described below for adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older are based on 4 clinical trials evaluating doses of ciclesonide nasal aerosol from 74 to 282 mcg. Three of the clinical trials were 2 to 6 weeks in duration and one trial was 26 weeks in duration with an additional 26-week open-label extension. Data from the first 6 weeks of the 26-week trial were pooled with data from the three 2-week trials. Short-term data (2 to 6 weeks) included 3001 patients with seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, of these, 884 received ZETONNA 74 mcg once daily and 892 received placebo. The short-term data included 1098 (36.6%) males, 1903 (63.4%) females, 2587 (86.2%) Caucasians, 320 (10.7%) Blacks, 49 (1.6%) Asians, and 45 (1.5%) patients classified as Other. The 26-week trial was conducted in 1110 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis [394 (35.5%) males and 716 (64.5%) females, ages 12 to 78 years old] treated with ZETONNA 74 mcg, 148 mcg or placebo once daily. Of these patients, 298 were treated with 74 mcg ZETONNA, 505 with 148 mcg, and 307 with placebo. The racial distribution in this trial included 922 (83.1%) Caucasians, 146 (13.2%) Blacks, 18 (1.6%) Asians, and 24 (2.2%) patients classified as Other. The 26-week open-label extension included 824 patients [295 (35.8%) males and 529 (64.2%) females, ages 12 to 79 years old] given ZETONNA 148 mcg once daily. The racial distribution in the open-label extension included 690 (83.7%) Caucasians, 104 (12.6%) Blacks, 15 (1.8%) Asians, and 15 (1.8%) patients classified as Other.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Short-Term (2-6 weeks) Trials:
In three short-term trials and the first 6 weeks of one long-term trial, conducted in the US, 884 patients with a history of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis were treated with ZETONNA 74 mcg daily. Adverse reactions did not differ appreciably based on age, gender, or race. The table below displays reactions that occurred with an incidence of at least 2.0% and more frequently with ZETONNA 74 mcg than with placebo in seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis clinical trials of 2 to 6 weeks duration.
|a Nasal discomfort includes both nasal discomfort and instillation site discomfort|
ZETONNA Nasal Aerosol74 mcg Once DailyN = 884
PlaceboN = 892
When considering the data from higher doses evaluated in the short-term trials, epistaxis demonstrated a dose response. In addition, two patients treated with ZETONNA 74 mcg experienced nasal septal perforations in the short-term trials compared to no patients treated with placebo.
Approximately 1.2% of patients treated with ZETONNA 74 mcg in clinical trials discontinued because of adverse reactions; this rate was similar for patients treated with placebo. Discontinuations due to local adverse reactions were similar in ZETONNA 74 mcg treated patients (0.8%) compared to placebo treated patients (0.8%). Local adverse reactions leading to discontinuation that occurred only in ZETONNA treated patients included ear infection, nasal discomfort, nasal dryness, nasal mucosal/septum disorders, pharyngitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, sinus headache, and tonsillitis.
Long-Term (26-Week Double-Blind and 26-Week Open-Label) Safety Trial:
In one 26-week double-blind, placebo-controlled safety trial that included 1110 adult and adolescent patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, additional adverse reactions, with an incidence of at least 2%, that occurred more frequently with ZETONNA than with placebo were upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, oropharyngeal pain, nasal mucosal/septum disorders, viral upper respiratory tract infection, cough, influenza, bronchitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, muscle strain, and nausea. Nasal discomfort (5.7%) and epistaxis (11.4%) were also more frequent in the 26-week safety trial compared to clinical trials 2 to 6 weeks in duration. Nasal mucosal/septum disorders and cough demonstrated a dose response.
Discontinuations due to adverse reactions were higher in ZETONNA treated patients compared to placebo treated patients and demonstrated a dose response. Local adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were also higher in ZETONNA 74 mcg treated patients (1.7%) compared to placebo treated patients (0.7%). The only local adverse reaction leading to discontinuation that occurred in ZETONNA treated patients and was not observed in the 2- to 6-week trials was upper respiratory tract infection.
A total of 824 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis who completed the 26-week double-blind trial enrolled into an open-label extension and received ZETONNA 148 mcg for 26 weeks. Additional adverse reactions, observed with an incidence of at least 2% were sinusitis, nasopharyngitis, and back pain.
A total of 4 nasal septal ulcerations were also reported in the 26-week open-label extension.
There were no reports of nasal septal perforations in the long-term safety trial.
Long-Term (6-Month Open-Label) Nasal Safety Trial:
Nasal and ocular safety was evaluated in one 26-week, postmarketing, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial, in adult and adolescent patients 12-74 years of age with a history of perennial allergic rhinitis. A total of 737 patients were treated with ZETONNA 74 mcg or ciclesonide nasal spray 200 mcg once daily. The combined incidence of nasal mucosal or septum disorders, including erosions and ulcerations, was 3 (0.8%) for ZETONNA 74 mcg and 4 (1.1%) for ciclesonide nasal spray 200 mcg treated patients. There were no nasal septal perforations reported with either treatment. Ocular findings, including the development or worsening of lens opacities, increase in intraocular pressure, and worsening visual acuity, were also evaluated over the 26-week treatment period. The occurrence of ocular safety events was similar for the ZETONNA 74 mcg and ciclesonide nasal spray 200 mcg treatment groups.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of other formulations of ciclesonide, ALVESCO® Inhalation Aerosol and OMNARIS® Nasal Spray. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
ALVESCO® Inhalation Aerosol: immediate or delayed hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema with swelling of the lips, tongue, and pharynx.
OMNARIS® Nasal Spray: nasal congestion, nasal ulcer, and dizziness. Localized infections of the nose or mouth with Candida albicans have also occurred with OMNARIS® Nasal Spray.
In vitro studies and clinical pharmacology studies suggested that des-ciclesonide has no potential for metabolic drug interactions or protein binding-based drug interactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. In a drug interaction study, co-administration of orally inhaled ciclesonide and oral ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, increased the exposure (AUC) of des-ciclesonide by approximately 3.6-fold at steady state, while levels of ciclesonide remained unchanged. Erythromycin, a moderate inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of either des-ciclesonide or erythromycin following oral inhalation of ciclesonide [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials in pregnant women. ZETONNA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Experience with oral corticosteroids since their introduction in pharmacologic, as opposed to physiologic, doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans.
Oral administration of ciclesonide in rats at approximately 120 times the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) in adults (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 900 mcg/kg/day) produced no teratogenicity or other fetal effects. However, subcutaneous administration of ciclesonide in rabbits at similar to MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 5 mcg/kg/day) produced fetal toxicity. This included fetal loss, reduced fetal weight, cleft palate, skeletal abnormalities including incomplete ossifications, and skin effects. No toxicity was observed at ¼ of the MRHDID in adults (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 1 mcg/kg/day).
Nonteratogenic Effects: Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully monitored.
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