Ziprasidone Hydrochloride (Page 5 of 11)

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical trials for oral ziprasidone included approximately 5700 patients and/or normal subjects exposed to one or more doses of ziprasidone. Of these 5700, over 4800 were patients who participated in multiple-dose effectiveness trials, and their experience corresponded to approximately 1831 patient-years. These patients include: (1) 4331 patients who participated in multiple-dose trials, predominantly in schizophrenia, representing approximately 1698 patient-years of exposure as of February 5, 2000; and (2) 472 patients who participated in bipolar mania trials representing approximately 133 patient-years of exposure. An additional 127 patients with bipolar disorder participated in a long-term maintenance treatment study representing approximately 74.7 patient-years of exposure to ziprasidone. The conditions and duration of treatment with ziprasidone included open-label and double-blind studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, and short-term and longer-term exposure.

Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained by collecting voluntarily reported adverse experiences, as well as results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, ECGs, and results of ophthalmologic examinations.

The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.

Adverse Findings Observed in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials with Oral Ziprasidone

The following findings are based on the short-term placebo-controlled premarketing trials for schizophrenia (a pool of two 6-week, and two 4-week fixed-dose trials) and bipolar mania (a pool of two 3-week flexible-dose trials) in which ziprasidone was administered in doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg/day.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short Term-Placebo-Controlled Trials The following adverse reactions were the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of ziprasidone (incidence of 5% or greater) and not observed at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients (ziprasidone incidence at least twice that for placebo):

Schizophrenia trials (see Table 11)

  • Somnolence
  • Respiratory Tract Infection

Bipolar trials (see Table 12)

  • Somnolence
  • Extrapyramidal Symptoms which includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials.
  • Dizziness which includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness.
  • Akathisia
  • Abnormal Vision
  • Asthenia
  • Vomiting

SCHIZOPHRENIA

Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials of Oral Ziprasidone

Approximately 4.1% (29/702) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 2.2% (6/273) on placebo. The most common reaction associated with dropout was rash, including 7 dropouts for rash among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to no placebo patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Table 11 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 6 weeks) in predominantly patients with schizophrenia, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

Table 11: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials-Schizophrenia
Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction
Body System/Adverse Reaction Ziprasidone (N=702) Placebo (N=273)
Body as a Whole
Asthenia 5 3
Accidental Injury 4 2
Chest Pain 3 2
Cardiovascular
Tachycardia 2 1
Digestive
Nausea 10 7
Constipation 9 8
Dyspepsia 8 7
Diarrhea 5 4
Dry Mouth 4 2
Anorexia 2 1
Nervous
Extrapyramidal Symptoms* 14 8
Somnolence 14 7
Akathisia 8 7
Dizziness** 8 6
Respiratory
Respiratory Tract Infection 8 3
Rhinitis 4 2
Cough Increased 3 1
Skin and Appendages
Rash 4 3
Fungal Dermatitis 2 1
Special Senses
Abnormal Vision 3 2

* Extrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 5% in schizophrenia trials.

** Dizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness.

Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Fixed-Dose, Placebo-Controlled Trials

An analysis for dose response in the schizophrenia 4-study pool revealed an apparent relation of adverse reaction to dose for the following reactions: asthenia, postural hypotension, anorexia, dry mouth, increased salivation, arthralgia, anxiety, dizziness, dystonia, hypertonia, somnolence, tremor, rhinitis, rash, and abnormal vision.

Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) – The incidence of reported EPS (which included the adverse reaction terms extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching) for ziprasidone-treated patients in the short-term, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials was 14% vs. 8% for placebo. Objectively collected data from those trials on the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (for EPS) and the Barnes Akathisia Scale (for akathisia) did not generally show a difference between ziprasidone and placebo.

Dystonia – Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, they occur more frequently and with greater severity with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. An elevated risk of acute dystonia is observed in males and younger age groups.

Vital Sign Changes – Ziprasidone is associated with orthostatic hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]

ECG Changes – Ziprasidone is associated with an increase in the QTc interval [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. In the schizophrenia trials, ziprasidone was associated with a mean increase in heart rate of 1.4 beats per minute compared to a 0.2 beats per minute decrease among placebo patients.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Oral Ziprasidone

Following is a list of COSTART terms that reflect treatment-emergent adverse reactions as defined in the introduction to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section reported by patients treated with ziprasidone in schizophrenia trials at multiple doses >4 mg/day within the database of 3834 patients. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in Table 11 or elsewhere in labeling, those reaction terms that were so general as to be uninformative, reactions reported only once and that did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life-threatening, reactions that are part of the illness being treated or are otherwise common as background reactions, and reactions considered unlikely to be drug-related. It is important to emphasize that, although the reactions reported occurred during treatment with ziprasidone, they were not necessarily caused by it.

Adverse reactions are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions:

Frequent — adverse reactions occurring in at least 1/100 patients (≥1.0% of patients) (only those not already listed in the tabulated results from placebo-controlled trials appear in this listing);

Infrequent — adverse reactions occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients (in 0.1 to 1 % of patients)

Rare – adverse reactions occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients (<0.1% of patients).

Body as a Whole
Frequent abdominal pain, flu syndrome, fever, accidental fall, face edema, chills, photosensitivity reaction, flank pain, hypothermia, motor vehicle accident
Cardiovascular System
Frequent tachycardia, hypertension, postural hypotension
Infrequent bradycardia, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation
Rare first degree AV block, bundle branch block, phlebitis, pulmonary embolus, cardiomegaly, cerebral infarct, cerebrovascular accident, deep thrombophlebitis, myocarditis, thrombophlebitis
Digestive System
Frequent anorexia, vomiting
Infrequent rectal hemorrhage, dysphagia, tongue edema
Rare gum hemorrhage, jaundice, fecal impaction, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increased, hematemesis, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, leukoplakia of mouth, fatty liver deposit, melena
Endocrine
Rare hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis
Hemic and Lymphatic System
Infrequent anemia, ecchymosis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy
Rare thrombocytopenia, hypochromic anemia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, basophilia, lymphedema, polycythemia, thrombocythemia
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders
Infrequent thirst, transaminase increased, peripheral edema, hyperglycemia, creatine phosphokinase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, hypercholesteremia, dehydration, lactic dehydrogenase increased, albuminuria, hypokalemia
Rare BUN increased, creatinine increased, hyperlipemia, hypocholesteremia, hyperkalemia, hypochloremia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, glucose tolerance decreased, gout, hyperchloremia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemic reaction, hypomagnesemia, ketosis, respiratory alkalosis
Musculoskeletal System
Frequent myalgia
Infrequent tenosynovitis
Rare myopathy
Nervous System
Frequent agitation, extrapyramidal syndrome, tremor, dystonia, hypertonia, dyskinesia, hostility, twitching, paresthesia, confusion, vertigo, hypokinesia, hyperkinesia, abnormal gait, oculogyric crisis, hypesthesia, ataxia, amnesia, cogwheel rigidity, delirium, hypotonia, akinesia, dysarthria, withdrawal syndrome, buccoglossal syndrome, choreoathetosis, diplopia, incoordination, neuropathy
Infrequent paralysis
Rare myoclonus, nystagmus, torticollis, circumoral paresthesia, opisthotonos, reflexes increased, trismus
Respiratory System
Frequent dyspnea
Infrequent pneumonia, epistaxis
Rare hemoptysis, laryngismus
Skin and Appendages
Infrequent maculopapular rash, urticaria, alopecia, eczema, exfoliative dermatitis, contact dermatitis, vesiculobullous rash
Special Senses
Frequent fungal dermatitis
Infrequent conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tinnitus, blepharitis, cataract, photophobia
Rare eye hemorrhage, visual field defect, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis
Urogenital System
Infrequent impotence, abnormal ejaculation, amenorrhea, hematuria, menorrhagia, female lactation, polyuria, urinary retention metrorrhagia, male sexual dysfunction, anorgasmia, glycosuria
Rare gynecomastia, vaginal hemorrhage, nocturia, oliguria, female sexual dysfunction, uterine hemorrhage

BIPOLAR DISORDER

Acute Treatment of Manic or Mixed Episodes

Adverse Reactions Associated With Discontinuation of Treatment in Short Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Approximately 6.5% (18/279) of ziprasidone-treated patients in short-term, placebo-controlled studies discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with about 3.7% (5/136) on placebo. The most common reactions associated with dropout in the ziprasidone-treated patients were akathisia, anxiety, depression, dizziness, dystonia, rash and vomiting, with 2 dropouts for each of these reactions among ziprasidone patients (1%) compared to one placebo patient each for dystonia and rash (1%) and no placebo patients for the remaining adverse reactions.

Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Ziprasidone-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Oral, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Table 12 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred during acute therapy (up to 3 weeks) in patients with bipolar mania, including only those reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with ziprasidone and for which the incidence in patients treated with ziprasidone was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

Table 12: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions Incidence In Short-Term Oral Placebo-Controlled Trials – Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated With Bipolar Disorder

Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction
Body System/Adverse Reaction Ziprasidone (N=279) Placebo (N=136)
Body as a Whole
Headache 18 17
Asthenia 6 2
Accidental Injury 4 1
Cardiovascular
Hypertension 3 2
Digestive
Nausea 10 7
Diarrhea 5 4
Dry Mouth 5 4
Vomiting 5 2
Increased Salivation 4 0
Tongue Edema 3 1
Dysphagia 2 0
Musculoskeletal
Myalgia 2 0
Nervous
Somnolence 31 12
Extrapyramidal Symptoms* 31 12
Dizziness** 16 7
Akathisia 10 5
Anxiety 5 4
Hypesthesia 2 1
Speech Disorder 2 0
Respiratory
Pharyngitis 3 1
Dyspnea 2 1
Skin and Appendages
Fungal Dermatitis 2 1
Special Senses
Abnormal Vision 6 3

* Extrapyramidal Symptoms includes the following adverse reaction terms: extrapyramidal syndrome, hypertonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, hypokinesia, tremor, paralysis and twitching. None of these adverse reactions occurred individually at an incidence greater than 10% in bipolar mania trials.

** Dizziness includes the adverse reaction terms dizziness and lightheadedness.

Explorations for interactions on the basis of gender did not reveal any clinically meaningful differences in the adverse reaction occurrence on the basis of this demographic factor.

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