14.2 Bipolar I Disorder (Acute Mixed or Manic Episodes and Maintenance Treatment as an Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate)
Acute Manic and Mixed Episodes Associated With Bipolar I Disorder
The efficacy of ziprasidone was established in 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-week monotherapy studies in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode with or without psychotic features. Primary rating instruments used for assessing manic symptoms in these trials were: (1) the Mania Rating Scale (MRS), which is derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version (SADS-CB) with items grouped as the Manic Syndrome subscale (elevated mood, less need for sleep, excessive energy, excessive activity, grandiosity), the Behavior and Ideation subscale (irritability, motor hyperactivity, accelerated speech, racing thoughts, poor judgment) and impaired insight; and (2) the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness Scale (CGI-S), which was used to assess the clinical significance of treatment response.
The results of the oral ziprasidone trials in adult bipolar I disorder, manic/mixed episode follow: in a 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=210), the dose of ziprasidone was 40 mg twice daily on Day 1 and 80 mg twice daily on Day 2. Titration within the range of 40-80 mg twice daily (in 20 mg twice daily increments) was permitted for the duration of the study. Ziprasidone was significantly more effective than placebo in reduction of the MRS total score and the CGI-S score. The mean daily dose of ziprasidone in this study was 132 mg. In a second 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=205), the dose of ziprasidone was 40 mg twice daily on Day 1. Titration within the range of 40-80 mg twice daily (in 20 mg twice daily increments) was permitted for the duration of study (beginning on Day 2). Ziprasidone was significantly more effective than placebo in reduction of the MRS total score and the CGI-S score. The mean daily dose of ziprasidone in this study was 112 mg.
The efficacy of ziprasidone as adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate in the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder was established in a placebo-controlled trial in patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder. The trial included patients whose most recent episode was manic or mixed, with or without psychotic features. In the open-label phase, patients were required to be stabilized on ziprasidone plus lithium or valproic acid for at least 8 weeks in order to be randomized. In the double-blind randomized phase, patients continued treatment with lithium or valproic acid and were randomized to receive either ziprasidone (administered twice daily totaling 80 mg to 160 mg per day) or placebo. Generally, in the maintenance phase, patients continued on the same dose on which they were stabilized during the stabilization phase. The primary endpoint in this study was time to recurrence of a mood episode (manic, mixed or depressed episode) requiring intervention, which was defined as any of the following: discontinuation due to a mood episode, clinical intervention for a mood episode (e.g., initiation of medication or hospitalization), or Mania Rating Scale score > 18 or a MADRS score >18 (on 2 consecutive assessments no more than 10 days apart). A total of 584 subjects were treated in the open-label stabilization period. In the double-blind randomization period, 127 subjects were treated with ziprasidone, and 112 subjects were treated with placebo. Ziprasidone was superior to placebo in increasing the time to recurrence of a mood episode. The types of relapse events observed included depressive, manic, and mixed episodes. Depressive, manic, and mixed episodes accounted for 53%, 34%, and 13%, respectively, of the total number of relapse events in the study.
Ziprasidone capsules, USP are differentiated by capsule color/size and are imprinted in black ink with “APO ZIP” and a unique number. Ziprasidone capsules, USP are supplied for oral administration in 20 mg (purple/white), 40 mg (purple/purple), 60 mg (white/white), and 80 mg (purple/white) capsules. They are supplied in the following strengths and package configurations:
|Package Configuration||Capsule Strength (mg)||NDC (National Drug Code)||Imprint|
|Bottles of 60||20||NDC-60505-2528-6||APO ZIP 20|
|Bottles of 60||40||NDC-60505-2529-6||APO ZIP 40|
|Bottles of 60||60||NDC-60505-2530-6||APO ZIP 60|
|Bottles of 60||80||NDC-60505-2531-6||APO ZIP 80|
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container [see USP].
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).
Administration Information for Ziprasidone Capsules
Advise patients to take ziprasidone capsules whole. Do not open, crush, or chew the capsules. Instruct patients to take ziprasidone capsules with food for optimal absorption. The absorption of ziprasidone is increased up to two-fold in the presence of food [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Drug Interactions (7.10) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Advise patients to inform their health care providers of the following: History of QT prolongation; recent acute myocardial infarction; uncompensated heart failure; prescription of other drugs that have demonstrated QT prolongation; risk for significant electrolyte abnormalities; and history of cardiac arrhythmia [see Contraindications (4.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Instruct patients to report the onset of any conditions that put them at risk for significant electrolyte disturbances, hypokalemia in particular, including but not limited to the initiation of diuretic therapy or prolonged diarrhea. In addition, instruct patients to report symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations, or syncope to the prescriber [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions
Instruct patients to report to their health care provider at the earliest onset any signs or symptoms that may be associated with Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) or with severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Advise pregnant women to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with ziprasidone capsules. Advise patients that ziprasidone capsules may cause extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms (agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorder) in a neonate. Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ziprasidone during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise breastfeeding women using ziprasidone to monitor infants for excess sedation, irritability, poor feeding, and extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors, and abnormal muscle movements) and to seek medical care if they notice these signs [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Advise females of reproductive potential that ziprasidone may impair fertility due to an increase in serum prolactin levels. The effects on fertility are reversible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15) and Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
This product’s label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visi t www.apotex.com.
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ZIPRASIDONE CAPSULES , USP
20 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg and 80 mg
|Manufactured by Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada M9L 1T9||Manufactured for Apotex Corp. Weston, Florida 33326|
Revised: June 2021
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