Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or a combination of drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary.
Serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including zolmitriptan, particularly during co-administration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see Drug Interactions (7.5)]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination), and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms usually rapidly occurs within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. Discontinue zolmitriptan if serotonin syndrome is suspected [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Significant elevations in systemic blood pressure have been reported in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists including patients without a history of hypertension; very rarely, these increases in blood pressure have been associated with serious adverse reactions. In healthy subjects treated with 5 mg of zolmitriptan, an increase of 1 and 5 mm Hg in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, was seen. In a study of patients with moderate to severe liver impairment, 7 of 27 patients experienced 20 to 80 mm Hg elevations in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure after a dose of 10 mg of zolmitriptan.
As with all triptans, blood pressure should be monitored in zolmitriptan-treated patients. Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see Contraindications (4)].
The following adverse reactions are described elsewhere in other sections of the prescribing information:
- Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal Angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Chest and or Throat, Neck and Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
- Cerebrovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
- Other Vasospasm Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
- Medication Overuse Headache [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
- Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
- Increase in Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In a long-term, open-label study where patients were allowed to treat multiple migraine attacks for up to 1 year, 8% (167 out of 2,058) withdrew from the trial because of adverse reaction.
The most common adverse reactions (≥ 5% and > placebo) in these trials were neck/throat/jaw pain, dizziness, paresthesia, asthenia, somnolence, warm/cold sensation, nausea, heaviness sensation, and dry mouth.
Table 1 lists the adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of the 2,074 patients in any one of the zolmitriptan 1 mg, 2.5 mg, or 5 mg dose groups in the controlled clinical trials of zolmitriptan in patients with migraines (Studies 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Only adverse reactions that were at least 2% more frequent in a zolmitriptan group compared to the placebo group are included.
Several of the adverse reactions appear dose related, notably paresthesia, sensation of heaviness or tightness in chest, neck, jaw, and throat, dizziness, somnolence and possibly asthenia and nausea.
|* Only adverse reactions that were at least 2% more frequent in a zolmitriptan group compared to the placebo group are included.|
|Placebo (n=401)||Zolmitriptan1 mg (n=163)||Zolmitriptan2.5 mg (n=498)||Zolmitriptan5 mg (n=1012)|
|Paresthesia (all types)||2%||5%||7%||9%|
|PAIN AND PRESSURE SENSATIONS||7%||13%||14%||22%|
|Chest — pain/tightness/pressure and/or heaviness||1%||2%||3%||4%|
|Heaviness other than chest or neck||1%||1%||2%||5%|
There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions in controlled clinical trials in the following subgroups: gender, weight, age, use of prophylactic medications, or presence of aura. There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on the incidence of adverse reactions.
Less Common Adverse Reactions with Zolmitriptan Tablets:
In the paragraphs that follow, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse clinical reactions are presented. Because the reports include reactions observed in open and uncontrolled studies, the role of zolmitriptan in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse reaction reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse reactions, etc., limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Adverse reaction frequencies were calculated as the number of patients who used zolmitriptan tablets and reported a reaction divided by the total number of patients exposed to zolmitriptan tablets (n=4,027). Reactions were further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: infrequent adverse reactions (those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients) and rare adverse reactions (those occurring in less than 1/1,000 patients).
General: Infrequent were allergic reactions.
Cardiovascular: Infrequent were arrhythmias, hypertension, and syncope. Rare was tachycardia.
Neurological: Infrequent were agitation, anxiety, depression, emotional lability and insomnia; Rare were amnesia, hallucinations, and cerebral ischemia.
Skin: Infrequent were pruritus, rash and urticaria.
Urogenital: Infrequent were polyuria, urinary frequency and urinary urgency.
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