Zolmitriptan (Page 3 of 7)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions were identified during post approval use of zolmitriptan. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The reactions enumerated include all except those already listed in the Clinical Trials Experience section above or the Warnings and Precautions section.
There have been reports of anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, and hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema in patients receiving zolmitriptan. Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to zolmitriptan.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Ergot-Containing Drugs
Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and zolmitriptan within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) ].
7.2 MAO-A Inhibitors
MAO-A inhibitors increase the systemic exposure of zolmitriptan. Therefore, the use of zolmitriptan in patients receiving MAO-A inhibitors is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.3 5-HT1B/1D agonists (e.g. triptans)
Concomitant use of other 5-HT1B/1D agonists (including triptans) within 24 hours of zolmitriptan treatment is contraindicated because the risk of vasospastic reactions may be additive [see Contraindications (4) ].
Following administration of cimetidine, the half-life and AUC of zolmitriptan and its active metabolites were approximately doubled [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. If cimetidine and zolmitriptan are used concomitantly, limit the maximum single dose of zolmitriptan to 2.5 mg, not to exceed 5 mg in any 24-hour period [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.5 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin Syndrome
Cases of life-threatening serotonin syndrome have been reported during combined use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and triptans [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of zolmitriptan in pregnant women. In reproductive toxicity studies in rats and rabbits, oral administration of zolmitriptan to pregnant animals resulted in embryolethality and fetal abnormalities (malformations and variations) at clinically relevant exposures (see Data).
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The estimated rates of major birth defects (2.2%-2.9%) and miscarriage (17%) among deliveries to women with migraine are similar to rates reported in women without migraine.
Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk
Published data have suggested that women with migraine may be at increased risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy.
When zolmitriptan was administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 100, 400, and 1200 mg/kg/day (plasma exposures (AUCs) ≈280, 1100, and 5000 times the human AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg/day), there was a dose-related increase in embryolethality. A no-effect dose for embryolethality was not established. When zolmitriptan was administered to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at oral doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs ≈1, 11, and 42 times the human AUC at the MRHD), there were increases in embryolethality and in fetal malformations and variations. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryo-fetal development was associated with a plasma AUC similar to that in humans at the MRHD. When female rats were given zolmitriptan during gestation, parturition, and lactation at oral doses of 25, 100, and 400 mg/kg/day (plasma AUCs ≈70, 280, and 1100 times that in human at the MRHD), an increased incidence of hydronephrosis was found in the offspring. The no-effect dose was associated with a plasma AUC ≈280 times that in humans at the MRHD.
There are no data on the presence of zolmitriptan or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects of zolmitriptan and its metabolites on milk production. In rats, oral dosing with zolmitriptan resulted in levels in milk up to 4 times that in maternal plasma.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for zolmitriptan and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from zolmitriptan or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of zolmitriptan in pediatric patients under 12 years of age have not been established.
The efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age was established in a placebo-controlled study with a total of 81 pediatric patients receiving zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and 229 pediatric patients receiving zolmitriptan 5 mg [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ].
In an earlier study with a different design, zolmitriptan 5 mg nasal spray was evaluated in the acute treatment of migraine headache in 171 pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age. In that study, the efficacy of zolmitriptan nasal spray was not established.
The safety of zolmitriptan nasal spray in the acute treatment of migraine in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age was established in two placebo-controlled studies with a total of 81 pediatric patients receiving zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and 431 pediatric patients receiving zolmitriptan 5 mg [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
The safety profile of zolmitriptan nasal spray in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age is similar to the profile observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
In the postmarketing experience with triptans, including zolmitriptan, there is a limited number of reports that describe pediatric patients who have experienced clinically serious adverse events; those that were reported are similar in nature to those reported rarely in adults.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of zolmitriptan did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of coronary artery disease) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to receiving zolmitriptan [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. The pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan were similar in geriatric patients (aged > 65 years) compared to younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
The effect of hepatic disease on the pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan nasal spray has not been evaluated. After oral administration, zolmitriptan blood levels were increased in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment, and significant elevation in blood pressure was observed in some of these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]. Zolmitriptan nasal spray is not recommended in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
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