ZOLMITRIPTAN — zolmitriptan tablet, orally disintegrating
Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited
Zolmitriptan is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults.
Limitations of Use
- Only use zolmitriptan if a clear diagnosis of migraine has been established. If a patient has no response to zolmitriptan treatment for the first migraine attack, reconsider the diagnosis of migraine before zolmitriptan is administered to treat any subsequent attacks.
- Zolmitriptan is not indicated for the prevention of migraine attacks.
- Safety and effectiveness of zolmitriptan have not been established for cluster headache.
The recommended starting dose of zolmitriptan tablet is 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg. The 1.25 mg dose can be achieved by manually breaking the functionally-scored 2.5 mg tablet in half. The maximum recommended single dose of zolmitriptan tablet is 5 mg.
In controlled clinical trials, a greater proportion of patients had headache response following a 2.5 mg or 5 mg dose than following a 1 mg dose. There was little added benefit from the 5 mg dose compared to the 2.5 mg dose, but adverse reactions were more frequent with the 5 mg dose.
If the migraine has not resolved by 2 hours after taking zolmitriptan, or returns after a transient improvement, a second dose may be administered at least 2 hours after the first dose. The maximum daily dose is 10 mg in any 24-hour period.
The safety of zolmitriptan in the treatment of an average of more than three migraines in a 30-day period has not been established.
Instruct patients not to break zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets because they are not functionally-scored. Administration with liquid is not necessary.
Orally disintegrating tablets are packaged in a blister pack. Instruct patients not to remove the tablet from the blister until just prior to dosing. Subsequently, instruct patients to peel the blister pack open, and to place the orally disintegrating tablet on the tongue, where it will dissolve and it will be swallowed with the saliva.
The recommended dose of zolmitriptan tablet in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment is 1.25 mg (one-half of one 2.5 mg zolmitriptan tablet) because of increased zolmitriptan blood levels in these patients and elevation of blood pressure in some of these patients. Limit the total daily dose in patients with severe hepatic impairment to no more than 5 mg per day.
The use of zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablets is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment because these orally disintegrating tablets should not be broken in half [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
If zolmitriptan is co-administered with cimetidine, limit the maximum single dose of zolmitriptan to 2.5 mg, not to exceed 5 mg in any 24-hour period [see Drug Interactions (7.5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
2.5 mg Orally Disintegrating Tablets: White to off-white, round, flat faced bevelled edge tablets debossed with ‘359’ on one side and ‘L’ on other side.
5 mg Orally Disintegrating Tablets: White to off-white, round, flat faced bevelled edge tablets debossed with ‘360’ on one side and ‘L’ on other side.
Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with:
- Ischemic coronary artery disease (angina pectoris, history of myocardial infarction, or documented silent ischemia), other significant underlying cardiovascular disease, or coronary artery vasospasm including Prinzmetal’s angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]
- Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]
- History of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or history of hemiplegic or basilar migraine because these patients are at a higher risk of stroke [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
- Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
- Ischemic bowel disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
- Uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]
- Recent use (i.e., within 24 hours) of another 5-HT1 agonist, ergotamine-containing medication, or ergot-type medication (such as dihydroergotamine or methysergide) [see Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.3) ]
- Concurrent administration of a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A inhibitor or recent use of a MAO-A inhibitor (that is within 2 weeks) [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]
- Known hypersensitivity to zolmitriptan (angioedema and anaphylaxis seen) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]
Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease (CAD). There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of zolmitriptan. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known CAD. 5-HT1 agonists including zolmitriptan may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal Angina), even in patients without a history of CAD.
Perform a cardiovascular evaluation in triptan-naïve patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) prior to receiving zolmitriptan. Do not administer zolmitriptan if there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm [see Contraindications (4) ]. For patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consider administrating the first zolmitriptan dose in a medically-supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following zolmitriptan administration. For such patients, consider periodic cardiovascular evaluation in intermittent long-term users of zolmitriptan.
Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue zolmitriptan if these disturbances occur. Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome or arrhythmias associated with other cardiac accessory conduction pathway disorders [see Contraindications (4) ].
As with other 5-HT1 agonists, sensations of tightness, pain, and pressure in the chest, throat, neck, and jaw commonly occur after treatment with zolmitriptan and is usually non-cardiac in origin. However, perform a cardiac evaluation if these patients are at high cardiac risk. 5-HT1 agonists including zolmitriptan are contraindicated in patients with CAD or Prinzmetal’s variant angina [see Contraindications (4) ].
Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not.
As with other acute migraine therapies, before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with symptoms atypical for migraine, exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. Zolmitriptan is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack [see Contraindications (4) ].
5-HT1 agonists, including zolmitriptan, may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud’s syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of a vasospastic reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, rule out a vasospastic reaction before receiving additional zolmitriptan doses [see Contraindications (4) ].
Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established.
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