Based on pharmacokinetic studies, no dosage adjustment of ZOLOFT is necessary when used in combination with cimetidine. Additionally, no dosage adjustment is required for diazepam, lithium, atenolol, tolbutamide, digoxin, and drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, when ZOLOFT is administered concomitantly [See Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for benzodiazepines have been reported in patients taking ZOLOFT. This finding is due to lack of specificity of the screening tests. False-positive test results may be expected for several days following discontinuation of ZOLOFT. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish sertraline from benzodiazepines.
Overall, available published epidemiologic studies of pregnant women exposed to sertraline in the first trimester suggest no difference in major birth defect risk compared to the background rate for major birth defects in comparator populations. Some studies have reported increases for specific major birth defects; however, these study results are inconclusive [See Data] . There are clinical considerations regarding neonates exposed to SSRIs and SNRIs, including ZOLOFT, during the third trimester of pregnancy [See Clinical Considerations].
Although no teratogenicity was observed in animal reproduction studies, delayed fetal ossification was observed when sertraline was administered during the period of organogenesis at doses less than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) in rats and doses 3.1 times the MRHD in rabbits on a mg/m 2 basis in adolescents. When sertraline was administered to female rats during the last third of gestation, there was an increase in the number of stillborn pups and pup deaths during the first four days after birth at the MRHD [See Data] .
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Advise a pregnant woman of possible risks to the fetus when prescribing ZOLOFT.
ZOLOFT oral solution contains 12% alcohol and is not recommended during pregnancy because there is no known safe level of alcohol exposure during pregnancy.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
A prospective longitudinal study followed 201 pregnant women with a history of major depression who were euthymic taking antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy. The women who discontinued antidepressants during pregnancy were more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continued antidepressants. Consider the risks of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medication during pregnancy and postpartum.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Exposure to SSRIs and SNRIs, including ZOLOFT in late pregnancy may lead to an increased risk for neonatal complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding, and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN).
When treating a pregnant woman with ZOLOFT during the third trimester, carefully consider both the potential risks and benefits of treatment. Monitor neonates who were exposed to ZOLOFT in the third trimester of pregnancy for PPHN and drug discontinuation syndrome [See Data].
Third Trimester Exposure
Neonates exposed to ZOLOFT and other SSRIs or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. These findings are based on post-marketing reports. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. In some cases, the clinical picture was consistent with serotonin syndrome [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .
Exposure during late pregnancy to SSRIs may have an increased risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN occurs in 1–2 per 1,000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective case-control study of 377 women whose infants were born with PPHN and 836 women whose infants were born healthy, the risk for developing PPHN was approximately six-fold higher for infants exposed to SSRIs after the 20 th week of gestation compared to infants who had not been exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy. A study of 831,324 infants born in Sweden in 1997–2005 found a PPHN risk ratio of 2.4 (95% CI 1.2–4.3) associated with patient-reported maternal use of SSRIs “in early pregnancy” and a PPHN risk ratio of 3.6 (95% CI 1.2–8.3) associated with a combination of patient-reported maternal use of SSRIs “in early pregnancy” and an antenatal SSRI prescription “in later pregnancy”.
First Trimester Exposure
The weight of evidence from epidemiologic studies of pregnant women exposed to sertraline in the first trimester suggest no difference in major birth defect risk compared to the background rate for major birth defects in pregnant women who were not exposed to sertraline. A meta-analysis of studies suggest no increase in the risk of total malformations (summary odds ratio=1.01, 95% CI=0.88–1.17) or cardiac malformations (summary odds ratio=0.93, 95% CI=0.70–1.23) among offspring of women with first trimester exposure to sertraline. An increased risk of congenital cardiac defects, specifically septal defects, the most common type of congenital heart defect, was observed in some published epidemiologic studies with first trimester sertraline exposure; however, most of these studies were limited by the use of comparison populations that did not allow for the control of confounders such as the underlying depression and associated conditions and behaviors, which may be factors associated with increased risk of these malformations.
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 80 mg/kg/day and 40 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses correspond to approximately 3.1 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg/day on a mg/m 2 basis in adolescents. There was no evidence of teratogenicity at any dose level. When pregnant rats and rabbits were given sertraline during the period of organogenesis, delayed ossification was observed in fetuses at doses of 10 mg/kg (0.4 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) in rats and 40 mg/kg (3.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) in rabbits. When female rats received sertraline during the last third of gestation and throughout lactation, there was an increase in stillborn pups and pup deaths during the first 4 days after birth. Pup body weights were also decreased during the first four days after birth. These effects occurred at a dose of 20 mg/kg (0.8 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). The no effect dose for rat pup mortality was 10 mg/kg (0.4 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). The decrease in pup survival was shown to be due to in utero exposure to sertraline. The clinical significance of these effects is unknown.
Available data from published literature demonstrate low levels of sertraline and its metabolites in human milk [See Data] . There are no data on the effects of sertraline on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ZOLOFT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the drug or from the underlying maternal condition.
In a published pooled analysis of 53 mother-infant pairs, exclusively human milk-fed infants had an average of 2% (range 0% to 15%) of the sertraline serum levels measured in their mothers. No adverse reactions were observed in these infants.
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