Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were carried out in CD-1 mice and Long-Evans rats at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day. These doses correspond to 1 times (mice) and 2 times (rats) the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg/day on a mg/m 2 basis. There was a dose-related increase of liver adenomas in male mice receiving sertraline at 10–40 mg/kg (0.25–1.0 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). No increase was seen in female mice or in rats of either sex receiving the same treatments, nor was there an increase in hepatocellular carcinomas. Liver adenomas have a variable rate of spontaneous occurrence in the CD-1 mouse and are of unknown significance to humans. There was an increase in follicular adenomas of the thyroid in female rats receiving sertraline at 40 mg/kg (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis); this was not accompanied by thyroid hyperplasia. While there was an increase in uterine adenocarcinomas in rats receiving sertraline at 10–40 mg/kg (0.5–2.0 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) compared to placebo controls, this effect was not clearly drug related.
Sertraline had no genotoxic effects, with or without metabolic activation, based on the following assays: bacterial mutation assay; mouse lymphoma mutation assay; and tests for cytogenetic aberrations in vivo in mouse bone marrow and in vitro in human lymphocytes.
Impairment of Fertility
A decrease in fertility was seen in one of two rat studies at a dose of 80 mg/kg (3.1 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis in adolescents).
Efficacy of ZOLOFT was established in the following trials:
- MDD: two short-term trials and one maintenance trials in adults [See Clinical Studies (14.1)].
- OCD: three short-term trials in adults and one short-term trial in pediatric patients [See Clinical Studies (14.2)] .
- PD: three short-term trials and one maintenance trial in adults [See Clinical Studies (14.3)].
- PTSD: two short-term trials and one maintenance trial in adults [See Clinical Studies (14.4)].
- SAD: two short-term trials and one maintenance trial in adults [See Clinical Studies (14.5)].
- PMDD: two short-term trials in adult female patients [See Clinical Studies (14.6)] .
The efficacy of ZOLOFT as a treatment for MDD was established in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and one double-blind, randomized-withdrawal study following an open label study in adult (ages 18 to 65) outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for MDD (studies MDD-1 and MDD-2).
- Study MDD-1 was an 8-week, 3-arm study with flexible dosing of ZOLOFT, amitriptyline, and placebo. Adult patients received ZOLOFT (N=126, in a daily dose titrated weekly to 50 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg), amitriptyline (N=123, in a daily dose titrated weekly to 50 mg, 100 mg, or 150 mg), or placebo (N= 130).
- Study MDD-2 was a 6-week, multicenter parallel study of three fixed doses of ZOLOFT administered once daily at 50 mg (N=82), 100 mg (N=75), and 200 mg (N=56) doses and placebo (N=76) in the treatment of adult outpatients with MDD.
Overall, these studies demonstrated ZOLOFT to be superior to placebo on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) of Illness and Global Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Study MDD-2 was not readily interpretable regarding a dose response relationship for effectiveness.
A third study (Study MDD-3) involved adult outpatients meeting the DSM-III criteria for MDD who had responded by the end of an initial 8-week open treatment phase on ZOLOFT 50–200 mg/day. These patients (n=295) were randomized to continuation on double-blind ZOLOFT 50–200 mg/day or placebo for 44 weeks. A statistically significantly lower relapse rate was observed for patients taking ZOLOFT compared to those on placebo: ZOLOFT [n=11 (8%)] and placebo [n=31 (39%)]. The mean ZOLOFT dose for completers was 70 mg/day.
Analyses for gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of sex.
Adults with OCD
The effectiveness of ZOLOFT in the treatment of OCD was demonstrated in three multicenter placebo-controlled studies of adult (age 18–65) non-depressed outpatients (Studies OCD-1, OCD-2, and OCD-3). Patients in all three studies had moderate to severe OCD (DSM-III or DSM-III-R) with mean baseline ratings on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) total score ranging from 23 to 25.
- Study OCD-1 was an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled study with flexible dosing of ZOLOFT in a range of 50 to 200 mg/day, titrated in 50 mg increments every 4 days to a maximally tolerated dose; the mean dose for completers was 186 mg/day. Patients receiving ZOLOFT (N=43) experienced a mean reduction of approximately 4 points on the Y-BOCS total score which was statistically significantly greater than the mean reduction of 2 points in placebo-treated patients (N=44). The mean change in Y-BOCS from baseline to last visit (the primary efficacy endpoint) was -3.79 (ZOLOFT) and -1.48 (placebo).
- Study OCD-2 was a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled fixed-dose study, including ZOLOFT doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/day. ZOLOFT (N=240) was titrated to the assigned dose over two weeks in 50 mg increments every 4 days. Patients receiving ZOLOFT doses of 50 and 200 mg/day experienced mean reductions of approximately 6 points on the Y-BOCS total score, which were statistically significantly greater than the approximately 3 point reduction in placebo-treated patients (N=84). The mean change in Y-BOCS from baseline to last visit (the primary efficacy endpoint) was -5.7 (pooled results from ZOLOFT 50 mg, 100 mg, and 150 mg) and -2.85 (placebo).
- Study OCD-3 was a 12-week randomized, placebo controlled study with flexible dosing of ZOLOFT in a range of 50 to 200 mg/day; the mean dose for completers was 185 mg/day. ZOLOFT (N=241) was titrated to the assigned dose over two weeks in 50 mg increments every 4 days. Patients receiving ZOLOFT experienced a mean reduction of approximately 7 points on the Y-BOCS total score which was statistically significantly greater than the mean reduction of approximately 4 points in placebo-treated patients (N=84). The mean change in Y-BOCS from baseline to last visit (the primary efficacy endpoint) was — 6.5 (ZOLOFT) and -3.6 (placebo).
Analyses for age and gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or sex.
The effectiveness of ZOLOFT was studied in the risk reduction of OCD relapse. In Study OCD-4, patients ranging in age from 18–79 meeting DSM-III-R criteria for OCD who had responded during a 52-week single-blind trial on ZOLOFT 50–200 mg/day (n=224) were randomized to continuation of ZOLOFT or to substitution of placebo for up to 28 weeks of observation for analysis of discontinuation due to relapse or insufficient clinical response. Response during the single-blind phase was defined as a decrease in the Y-BOCS score of ≥ 25% compared to baseline and a CGI-I of 1 (very much improved), 2 (much improved) or 3 (minimally improved). Insufficient clinical response during the double-blind phase indicated a worsening of the patient’s condition that resulted in study discontinuation, as assessed by the investigator. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as the following conditions being met (on three consecutive visits for 1 and 2, and condition 3 being met at visit 3):
- Condition 1: Y-BOCS score increased by ≥ 5 points, to a minimum of 20, relative to baseline;
- Condition 2: CGI-I increased by ≥ one point; and
- Condition 3: Worsening of the patient’s condition in the investigator’s judgment, to justify alternative treatment.
Patients receiving continued ZOLOFT treatment experienced a statistically significantly lower rate of discontinuation due to relapse or insufficient clinical response over the subsequent 28 weeks compared to those receiving placebo. This pattern was demonstrated in male and female subjects.
Pediatric Patients with OCD
The effectiveness of ZOLOFT for the treatment of OCD was demonstrated in a 12-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in a pediatric outpatient population (ages 6–17) (Study OCD-5). ZOLOFT (N=92) was initiated at doses of either 25 mg/day (pediatric patients ages 6–12) or 50 mg/day (adolescents, ages 13–17), and then titrated at 3 and 4 day intervals (25 mg incremental dose for pediatric patients ages 6–12) or 1 week intervals (50 mg incremental dose adolescents ages 13–17) over the next four weeks to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day, as tolerated. The mean dose for completers was 178 mg/day. Dosing was once a day in the morning or evening. Patients in this study had moderate to severe OCD (DSM-III-R) with mean baseline ratings on the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) total score of 22. Patients receiving ZOLOFT experienced a mean reduction of approximately 7 units on the CY-BOCS total score which was statistically significantly greater than the 3 unit reduction for placebo patients (n=95). Analyses for age and gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or sex.
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