Zolpidem Tartrate

ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE — zolpidem tartrate tablet, film coated
McKesson Corporation

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Zolpidem tartrate tablets are indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep initiation. Zolpidem tartrate tablets have been shown to decrease sleep latency for up to 35 days in controlled clinical studies [see Clinical Studies (14)].
The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were 4 to 5 weeks in duration with the final formal assessments of sleep latency performed at the end of treatment.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage in Adults

Use the lowest effective dose for the patient. The recommended initial dose is 5 mg for women and either 5 or 10 mg for men, taken only once per night immediately before bedtime with at least 7 to 8 hours remaining before the planned time of awakening. If the 5 mg dose is not effective, the dose can be increased to 10 mg. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels following use of the 10 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The total dose of zolpidem tartrate tablets should not exceed 10 mg once daily immediately before bedtime. Zolpidem tartrate tablets should be taken as a single dose and should not be readministered during the same night.

The recommended initial doses for women and men are different because zolpidem clearance is lower in women.

2.2 Special Populations

Elderly or debilitated patients may be especially sensitive to the effects of zolpidem tartrate. The recommended dose of zolpidem tartrate in these patients is 5 mg once daily immediately before bedtime [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment do not clear the drug as rapidly as normal subjects. The recommended dose of zolpidem tartrate in these patients is 5 mg once daily immediately before bedtime. Avoid zolpidem tartrate use in patients with severe hepatic impairment as it may contribute to encephalopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.3 Use with CNS Depressants

Dosage adjustment may be necessary when zolpidem tartrate tablets are combined with other CNS depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.4 Administration


The effect of zolpidem tartrate tablets may be slowed by ingestion with or immediately after a meal.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Zolpidem tartrate is available in 5 mg and 10 mg strength tablets for oral administration. Tablets are not scored.
Zolpidem tartrate tablets USP 5 mg are white to off-white, circular, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “E” on one side and “78” on the other side.
Zolpidem tartrate tablets USP 10 mg are white to off-white, oval shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets, debossed with “E” on one side and “79” on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Zolpidem tartrate tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to zolpidem. Observed reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment

Zolpidem tartrate, like other sedative-hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Co-administration with other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol) increases the risk of CNS depression. Dosage adjustments of zolpidem tartrate and of other concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when zolpidem tartrate is administered with such agents because of the potentially additive effects. The use of zolpidem tartrate with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].

The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if zolpidem tartrate is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7 to 8 hours); if a higher than the recommended dose is taken; if co-administered with other CNS depressants or alcohol; or if co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of zolpidem. Patients should be warned against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness if zolpidem tartrate is taken in these circumstances [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Vehicle drivers and machine operators should be warned that, as with other hypnotics, there may be a possible risk of adverse reactions including drowsiness, prolonged reaction time, dizziness, sleepiness, blurred/double vision, reduced alertness and impaired driving the morning after therapy. In order to minimize this risk a full night of sleep (7 to 8 hours) is recommended.

5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-morbid Diagnoses

Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including zolpidem.

5.3 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions

Cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including zolpidem. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the throat, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with zolpidem should not be rechallenged with the drug.

5.4 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes

Abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported in patients treated with sedative/hypnotics, including zolpidem tartrate. Some of these changes included decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seemed out of character), bizarre behavior, agitation and depersonalization. Visual and auditory hallucinations have been reported.
In controlled trials of zolpidem tartrate 10 mg taken at bedtime < 1% of adults with insomnia reported hallucinations. In a clinical trial, 7% of pediatric patients treated with zolpidem tartrate 0.25 mg/kg taken at bedtime reported hallucinations versus 0% treated with placebo [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
Complex behaviors such as “sleep-driving” (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a sedative-hypnotic, with amnesia for the event) have been reported in sedative-hypnotic-naive as well as in sedative-hypnotic-experienced persons. Although behaviors such as “sleep-driving” have occurred with zolpidem tartrate alone at therapeutic doses, the co-administration of zolpidem tartrate with alcohol and other CNS depressants increases the risk of such behaviors, as does the use of zolpidem tartrate at doses exceeding the maximum recommended dose. Due to the risk to the patient and the community, discontinuation of zolpidem tartrate should be strongly considered for patients who report a “sleep-driving” episode.
Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with “sleep-driving”, patients usually do not remember these events. Amnesia, anxiety and other neuro-psychiatric symptoms may also occur.


It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation.

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