ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE- zolpidem tartrate tablet
1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Zolpidem tartrate tablets, USP are indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep initiation. Zolpidem tartrate tablets, USP have been shown to decrease sleep latency for up to 35 days in controlled clinical studies [see ]. Clinical Studies (14)
The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were 4-5 weeks in duration with the final formal assessments of sleep latency performed at the end of treatment.
2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosage in Adults
Use the lowest effective dose for the patient. The recommended initial dose is 5 mg for women and either 5 or 10 mg for men, taken only once per night immediately before bedtime with at least 7-8 hours remaining before the planned time of awakening. If the 5 mg dose is not effective, the dose can be increased to 10 mg. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels following use of the 10 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness . The total dose of zolpidem tartrate tablets should not exceed 10 mg once daily immediately before bedtime. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
The recommended initial doses for women and men are different because zolpidem clearance is lower in women.
2.2 Special Populations
Elderly or debilitated patients may be especially sensitive to the effects of zolpidem tartrate. Patients with hepatic insufficiency do not clear the drug as rapidly as normal subjects. The recommended dose of zolpidem tartrate in both of these patient populations is 5 mg once daily immediately before bedtime [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1); Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
2.3 Use with CNS Depressants
Dosage adjustment may be necessary when zolpidem tartrate tablets are combined with other CNS depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects . [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
The effect of zolpidem tartrate tablets may be slowed by ingestion with or immediately after a meal.
3. DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Zolpidem tartrate tablets are available in 5 mg and 10 mg strength tablets for oral administration. Tablets are not scored.
Zolpidem tartrate 5 mg tablets are red colored, capsule shaped tablets with the Torrent logo debossed on one side and ‘5 MG’ debossed on the other side.
Zolpidem tartrate 10 mg tablets are peach-yellow colored, capsule shaped tablets with the Torrent logo debossed on one side and ’10 MG’ debossed on the other side.
Zolpidem tartrate tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to zolpidem. Observed reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema . [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
5. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment
Zolpidem tartrate tablets, like other sedative-hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Co-administration with other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol) increases the risk of CNS depression. Dosage adjustments of zolpidem tartrate tablets and of other concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when zolpidem tartrate tablets are administered with such agents because of the potentially additive effects. The use of zolpidem tartrate tablets with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if zolpidem tartrate tablets are taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7- to 8 hours); if a higher than the recommended dose is taken; if co-administered with other CNS depressants; or if co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of zolpidem. Patients should be cautioned against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness if zolpidem tartrate tablets are taken in these circumstances [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].
5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-Morbid Diagnoses
Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including zolpidem.
5.3 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions
Cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including zolpidem. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the throat, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with zolpidem should not be rechallenged with the drug.
5.4 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes
Abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported in patients treated with sedative/hypnotics, including zolpidem. Some of these changes included decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seemed out of character), bizarre behavior, agitation and depersonalization. Visual and auditory hallucinations have been reported.
In controlled trials of zolpidem 10 mg taken at bedtime < 1% of adults with insomnia reported hallucinations. In a clinical trial, 7% of pediatric patients treated with zolpidem 0.25 mg/kg taken at bedtime reported hallucinations versus 0% treated with placebo . [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]
Complex behaviors such as “sleep-driving” (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a sedative-hypnotic, with amnesia for the event) have been reported in sedative-hypnotic-naive as well as in sedative-hypnotic-experienced persons. Although behaviors such as “sleep-driving” have occurred with zolpidem alone at therapeutic doses, the co-administration of zolpidem with alcohol and other CNS depressants increases the risk of such behaviors, as does the use of zolpidem at doses exceeding the maximum recommended dose. Due to the risk to the patient and the community, discontinuation of zolpidem should be strongly considered for patients who report a “sleep-driving” episode.
Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with “sleep-driving”, patients usually do not remember these events. Amnesia, anxiety and other neuro-psychiatric symptoms may also occur.
It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation.
5.5 Use in Patients with Depression
In primarily depressed patients treated with sedative-hypnotics, worsening of depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions (including completed suicides), have been reported. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients and protective measures may be required. Intentional overdosage is more common in this group of patients; therefore, the lowest number of tablets that is feasible should be prescribed for the patient at any one time.
5.6 Respiratory Depression
Although studies with 10 mg zolpidem tartrate did not reveal respiratory depressant effects at hypnotic doses in healthy subjects or in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a reduction in the Total Arousal Index, together with a reduction in lowest oxygen saturation and increase in the times of oxygen desaturation below 80% and 90%, was observed in patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea when treated with zolpidem compared to placebo. Since sedative-hypnotics have the capacity to depress respiratory drive, precautions should be taken if zolpidem is prescribed to patients with compromised respiratory function. Post-marketing reports of respiratory insufficiency in patients receiving 10 mg of zolpidem tartrate, most of whom had pre-existing respiratory impairment, have been reported. The risk of respiratory depression should be considered prior to prescribing zolpidem in patients with respiratory impairment including sleep apnea and myasthenia gravis.
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