The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of zolpidem tartrate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Liver and biliary system: acute hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury with or without jaundice (i.e., bilirubin >2 x ULN, alkaline phosphatase ≥2 x ULN, transaminase ≥5 x ULN).
Psychiatric disorders: delirium
Coadministration of zolpidem with other CNS depressants increases the risk of CNS depression. Concomitant use of zolpidem with these drugs may increase drowsiness and psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving ability [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2)]. Zolpidem tartrate was evaluated in healthy volunteers in single-dose interaction studies for several CNS drugs.
The concomitant use of zolpidem tartrate with opioids may increase the risk of respiratory depression. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of zolpidem tartrate and opioids [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Imipramine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction other than a 20% decrease in peak levels of imipramine, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness. Similarly, chlorpromazine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness and psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Concomitant administration of zolpidem and sertraline increases exposure to zolpidem [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
After multiple doses of zolpidem tartrate and fluoxetine an increase in the zolpidem half-life (17%) was observed. There was no evidence of an additive effect in psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
A study involving haloperidol and zolpidem revealed no effect of haloperidol on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. The lack of a drug interaction following single-dose administration does not predict the absence of an effect following chronic administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Some compounds known to induce or inhibit CYP3A may affect exposure to zolpidem. The effect of drugs that induce or inhibit other P450 enzymes on the exposure to zolpidem is not known.
Rifampin, a CYP3A4 inducer, significantly reduced the exposure to and the pharmacodynamic effects of zolpidem. Use of Rifampin in combination with zolpidem may decrease the efficacy of zolpidem and is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
St. John’s wort
Use of St. John’s wort, a CYP3A4 inducer, in combination with zolpidem may decrease blood levels of zolpidem and is not recommended.
Ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the exposure to and pharmacodynamic effects of zolpidem. Consideration should be given to using a lower dose of zolpidem when a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor and zolpidem are given together [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Neonates born to mothers using zolpidem late in the third trimester of pregnancy have been reported to experience symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation [see Clinical Considerations and Data]. Published data on the use of zolpidem during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with zolpidem and major birth defects [see Data]. Oral administration of zolpidem to pregnant rats and rabbits did not indicate a risk for adverse effects on fetal development at clinically relevant doses [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/neonatal adverse reactions
Zolpidem crosses the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and sedation in neonates. Monitor neonates exposed to zolpidem tartrate during pregnancy and labor for signs of excess sedation, hypotonia, and respiratory depression and manage accordingly.
Published data from observational studies, birth registries, and case reports on the use of zolpidem during pregnancy do not report a clear association with zolpidem and major birth defects.
There are limited postmarketing reports of severe to moderate cases of respiratory depression that occurred after birth in neonates whose mothers had taken zolpidem during pregnancy. These cases required artificial ventilation or intratracheal intubation. The majority of neonates recovered within hours to a few weeks after birth once treated.
Zolpidem has been shown to cross the placenta.
Oral administration of zolpidem to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg/day, which are approximately 5, 25, and 120 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg/day (8 mg zolpidem base) based on mg/m2 body surface area, caused delayed fetal development (incomplete fetal skeletal ossification) at maternally toxic (ataxia) doses 25 and 120 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area.
Oral administration of zolpidem to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis at 1, 4, and 16 mg base/kg/day, which are approximately 2.5, 10, and 40 times the MRHD of 10 mg/day (8 mg zolpidem base) based on mg/m2 body surface area caused embryo-fetal death and delayed fetal development (incomplete fetal skeletal ossification) at a maternally toxic (decreased body weight gain) dose 40 times the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area.
Oral administration of zolpidem to pregnant rats from day 15 of gestation through lactation at 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg/day, which are approximately 5, 25, and 120 times the MRHD of 10 mg/day (8 mg zolpidem base) based on mg/m2 body surface area, delayed offspring growth and decreased survival at doses 25 and 120 times, respectively, the MRHD based on mg/m2 body surface area.
Limited data from published literature report the presence of zolpidem in human milk. There are reports of excess sedation in infants exposed to zolpidem through breastmilk [see Clinical Considerations]. There is no information on the effects of zolpidem on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for zolpidem tartrate and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from zolpidem tartrate or from the underlying maternal condition.
Infants exposed to zolpidem tartrate through breastmilk should be monitored for excess sedation, hypotonia, and respiratory depression. A lactating woman may consider interrupting breastfeeding and pumping and discarding breast milk during treatment and for 23 hours (approximately 5 elimination half-lives) after zolpidem tartrate administration in order to minimize drug exposure to a breast fed infant.
Zolpidem tartrate is not recommended for use in children. Safety and effectiveness of zolpidem in pediatric patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. In an 8-week study in pediatric patients (aged 6 to 17 years) with insomnia associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) an oral solution of zolpidem tartrate dosed at 0.25 mg/kg at bedtime did not decrease sleep latency compared to placebo. Psychiatric and nervous system disorders comprised the most frequent (>5%) treatment emergent adverse reactions observed with zolpidem versus placebo and included dizziness (23.5% vs 1.5%), headache (12.5% vs 9.2%), and hallucinations were reported in 7% of the pediatric patients who received zolpidem; none of the pediatric patients who received placebo reported hallucinations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Ten patients on zolpidem (7.4%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction.
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