Zonisamide (Page 7 of 9)

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse reactions with zonisamide (an incidence at least 4% greater than placebo) in controlled clinical trials and shown in descending order of frequency were somnolence, anorexia, dizziness, ataxia, agitation/irritability, and difficulty with memory and/or concentration.

In controlled clinical trials, 12% of patients receiving zonisamide as adjunctive therapy discontinued due to an adverse reaction compared to 6% receiving placebo. Approximately 21% of the 1,336 patients with epilepsy who received zonisamide in clinical studies discontinued treatment because of an adverse reaction. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were somnolence, fatigue and/or ataxia (6%), anorexia (3%), difficulty concentrating (2%), difficulty with memory, mental slowing, nausea/vomiting (2%), and weight loss (1%). Many of these adverse reactions were dose-related (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Adverse Reaction Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials: Table 4 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with zonisamide in controlled clinical trials that were numerically more common in the zonisamide group. In these studies, either zonisamide or placebo was added to the patient’s current AED therapy.

Table 4. Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled, Add-On Trials (Events that occurred in at least 2% of Zonisamide-treated patients and occurred more frequently in Zonisamide-treated than placebo-treated patients)
BODY SYSTEM/PREFERRED TERM ZONISAMIDE(n=269)% PLACEBO(n=230)%
BODY AS A WHOLE
Headache 10 8
Abdominal Pain 6 3
Flu Syndrome 4 3
DIGESTIVE
Anorexia 13 6
Nausea 9 6
Diarrhea 5 2
Dyspepsia 3 1
Constipation 2 1
Dry Mouth 2 1
HEMATOLOGIC AND LYMPHATIC
Ecchymosis 2 1
METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL
Weight Loss 3 2
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Dizziness 13 7
Ataxia 6 1
Nystagmus 4 2
Paresthesia 4 1
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION ALTERED COGNITIVE FUNCTION
Confusion 6 3
Difficulty Concentrating 6 2
Difficulty with Memory 6 2
Mental Slowing 4 2
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION-BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES (NON-PSYCHOSIS-RELATED)
Agitation/Irritability 9 4
Depression 6 3
Insomnia 6 3
Anxiety 3 2
Nervousness 2 1
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION-BEHAVIORAL ABNORMALITIES (PSYCHOSIS-RELATED)
Schizophrenic/Schizophreniform Behavior 2 0
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION-CNS DEPRESSION
Somnolence 17 7
Fatigue 8 6
Tiredness 7 5
NEUROPSYCHIATRIC AND COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION-SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ABNORMALITIES
Speech Abnormalities 5 2
Difficulties in Verbal Expression 2 <1
RESPIRATORY
Rhinitis 2 1
SKIN AND APPENDAGES
Rash 3 2
SPECIAL SENSES
Diplopia 6 3
Taste Perversion 2 0

Other Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials: zonisamide has been administered to 1,598 individuals during all clinical trials, only some of which were placebo-controlled. The frequencies represent the proportion of the 1,598 individuals exposed to zonisamide who experienced an event on at least one occasion. All events are included except those already listed in the previous table or discussed in WARNINGS or PRECAUTIONS, trivial events, those too general to be informative, and those not reasonably associated with zonisamide.

Events are further classified within each category and listed in order of decreasing frequency as follows: frequent occurring in at least 1:100 patients; infrequent occurring in 1:100 to 1:1000 patients; rare occurring in fewer than 1:1000 patients.

Body as a Whole: Frequent: Accidental injury, asthenia. Infrequent: Chest pain, flank pain, malaise, allergic reaction, face edema, neck rigidity. Rare: Lupus erythematosus.

Cardiovascular: Infrequent: Palpitation, tachycardia, vascular insufficiency, hypotension, hypertension, thrombophlebitis, syncope, bradycardia. Rare: Atrial fibrillation, heart failure, pulmonary embolus, ventricular extrasystoles.

Digestive: Frequent: Vomiting. Infrequent: Flatulence, gingivitis, gum hyperplasia, gastritis, gastroenteritis, stomatitis, cholelithiasis, glossitis, melena, rectal hemorrhage, ulcerative stomatitis, gastro-duodenal ulcer, dysphagia, gum hemorrhage. Rare: Cholangitis, hematemesis, cholecystitis, cholestatic jaundice, colitis, duodenitis, esophagitis, fecal incontinence, mouth ulceration.

Hematologic and Lymphatic: Infrequent: Leukopenia, anemia, immunodeficiency, lymphadenopathy. Rare: Thrombocytopenia, microcytic anemia, petechia.

Metabolic and Nutritional: Infrequent: Peripheral edema, weight gain, edema, thirst, dehydration. Rare: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, lactic dehydrogenase increased, SGOT increased, SGPT increased.

Musculoskeletal: Infrequent: Leg cramps, myalgia, myasthenia, arthralgia, arthritis.

Nervous System: Frequent: Tremor, convulsion, abnormal gait, hyperesthesia, incoordination. Infrequent: Hypertonia, twitching, abnormal dreams, vertigo, libido decreased, neuropathy, hyperkinesia, movement disorder, dysarthria, cerebrovascular accident, hypotonia, peripheral neuritis, reflexes increased. Rare: Dyskinesia, dystonia, encephalopathy, facial paralysis, hypokinesia, hyperesthesia, myoclonus, oculogyric crisis.

Behavioral Abnormalities –Non-Psychosis-Related: Infrequent: Euphoria.

Respiratory: Frequent: Pharyngitis, cough increased. Infrequent: Dyspnea. Rare: Apnea, hemoptysis.

Skin and Appendages: Frequent: Pruritus. Infrequent: Maculopapular rash, acne, alopecia, dry skin, sweating, eczema, urticaria, hirsutism, pustular rash, vesiculobullous rash.

Special Senses: Frequent: Amblyopia, tinnitus. Infrequent: Conjunctivitis, parosmia, deafness, visual field defect, glaucoma. Rare: Photophobia, iritis.

Urogenital: Infrequent: Urinary frequency, dysuria, urinary incontinence, hematuria, impotence, urinary retention, urinary urgency, amenorrhea, polyuria, nocturia. Rare: Albuminuria, enuresis, bladder pain, bladder calculus, gynecomastia, mastitis, menorrhagia.

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