ZORTRESS- everolimus tablet
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
WARNING : MALIGNANCIES AND SERIOUS INFECTIONS, KIDNEY GRAFT THROMBOSIS; NEPHROTOXICITY; AND MORTALITY IN HEART TRANSP L ANTATION
Malignancies and Serious Infections
- Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressive therapy and management of transplant patients should prescribe Zortress. Patients receiving the drug should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical resources. The physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] .
- Increased susceptibility to infection and the possible development of malignancies such as lymphoma and skin cancer may result from immunosuppression [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3)].
Kidney Graft Thrombosis
- An increased risk of kidney arterial and venous thrombosis, resulting in graft loss, was reported, mostly within the first 30 days posttransplantation [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )].
- Increased nephrotoxicity can occur with use of standard doses of cyclosporine in combination with Zortress. Therefore, reduced doses of cyclosporine should be used in combination with Zortress in order to reduce renal dysfunction. It is important to monitor the cyclosporine and everolimus whole blood trough concentrations [ see Dosage and Administration (2. 4 , 2. 5 ) , Warnings and Precautions ( 5. 6 ) , Clinical Pharmacology (12. 7 , 12. 8 )] .
Mortality in Heart Transplantation
- Increased mortality, often associated with serious infections, within the first three months posttransplantation was observed in a clinical trial of de novo heart transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive regimens with or without induction therapy. Use in heart transplantation is not recommended [ see Warnings and Precautions (5. 7 )] .
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Zortress is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients at low-moderate immunologic risk receiving a kidney transplant [ see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . Zortress is to be administered in combination with basiliximab induction and concurrently with reduced doses of cyclosporine and with corticosteroids. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of everolimus and cyclosporine is recommended for all patients receiving these products [ see Dosage and Administration (2.2 , 2.3)] .
Zortress is indicated for the prophylaxis of allograft rejection in adult patients receiving a liver transplant. Zortress is to be administered no earlier than 30 days posttransplant concurrently in combination with reduced doses of tacrolimus and with corticosteroids [ s ee Warnings and Precautions (5. 5 ) , Clinical Studies (14.2) ] . TDM of everolimus and tacrolimus is recommended for all patients receiving these products [ s ee Dosage and Administration (2.3 , 2.5)] .
The safety and efficacy of Zortress has not been established in the following populations:
- Kidney transplant patients at high immunologic risk
- Recipients of transplanted organs other than kidney and liver [ s ee Warnings and Precautions (5. 7 ) ]
- Pediatric patients (less than 18 years).
Patients receiving Zortress may require dose adjustments based on everolimus blood concentrations achieved, tolerability, individual response, change in concomitant medications and the clinical situation. Optimally, dose adjustments of Zortress should be based on trough concentrations obtained 4 or 5 days after a previous dosing change. Dose adjustment is required if the trough concentration is below 3 ng/mL. The total daily dose of Zortress should be doubled using the available tablet strengths (0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, or 1 mg). Dose adjustment is also required if the trough concentration is greater than 8 ng/mL on 2 consecutive measures; the dose of Zortress should be decreased by 0.25 mg twice daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
An initial Zortress dose of 0.75 mg orally twice daily (1.5 mg per day) is recommended for adult kidney transplant patients in combination with reduced dose cyclosporine, administered as soon as possible after transplantation [ s ee Dosage and Administration ( 2.3 , 2.4 ) , Clinical Studies (14.1) ] .
Oral prednisone should be initiated once oral medication is tolerated. Steroid doses may be further tapered on an individualized basis depending on the clinical status of patient and function of graft.
Start Zortress at least 30 days posttransplant. An initial dose of 1 mg orally twice daily (2 mg per day) is recommended for adult liver transplant patients in combination with reduced dose tacrolimus [ s ee Dosage and Administration (2.3 , 2.5), Clinical Studies (14.2)] .
Steroid doses may be further tapered on an individualized basis depending on the clinical status of patient and function of graft.
Routine everolimus whole blood therapeutic drug concentration monitoring is recommended for all patients. The recommended everolimus therapeutic range is 3 to 8 ng/mL [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12. 7 ) ] . Careful attention should be made to clinical signs and symptoms, tissue biopsies, and laboratory parameters. It is important to monitor everolimus blood concentrations, in patients with hepatic impairment, during concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors, when switching cyclosporine formulations and/or when cyclosporine dosing is reduced according to recommended target concentrations [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12. 7 , 12. 8 )] .
There is an interaction of cyclosporine on everolimus, and consequently, everolimus concentrations may decrease if cyclosporine exposure is reduced. There is little to no pharmacokinetic interaction of tacrolimus on everolimus, and thus, everolimus concentrations do not decrease if the tacrolimus exposure is reduced [ s ee Drug Interactions (7 .2 )] .
The everolimus recommended therapeutic range of 3 to 8 ng/mL is based on an LC/MS/MS assay method. Currently in clinical practice, everolimus whole blood trough concentrations may be measured by chromatographic or immunoassay methodologies. Because the measured everolimus whole blood trough concentrations depend on the assay used, individual patient sample concentration values from different assays may not be interchangeable. Consideration of assay results must be made with knowledge of the specific assay used. Therefore, communication should be maintained with the laboratory performing the assay.
Both cyclosporine doses and the target range for whole blood trough concentrations should be reduced, when given in a regimen with Zortress, in order to minimize the risk of nephrotoxicity [ s ee Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 ) , Drug Interactions (7.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12. 8 )] .
The recommended cyclosporine therapeutic ranges when administered with Zortress are 100 to 200 ng/mL through Month 1 posttransplant, 75 to 150 ng/mL at Months 2 and 3 posttransplant, 50 to 100 ng/mL at Month 4 posttransplant, and 25 to 50 ng/mL from Month 6 through Month 12 posttransplant. The median trough concentrations observed in the clinical trial ranged between 161 to 185 ng/mL through Month 1 posttransplant and between 111 to 140 ng/mL at Months 2 and 3 posttransplant. The median trough concentration was 99 ng/mL at Month 4 posttransplant and ranged between 46 to 75 ng/mL from Months 6 through Month 12 posttransplant [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12. 8 ) , Clinical Studies (14.1)] .
Cyclosporine, USP Modified is to be administered as oral capsules twice daily unless cyclosporine oral solution or intravenous administration of cyclosporine cannot be avoided. Cyclosporine, USP Modified should be initiated as soon as possible, and no later than 48 hours after reperfusion of the graft and dose adjusted to target concentrations from Day 5 onwards.
If impairment of renal function is progressive, the treatment regimen should be adjusted. In renal transplant patients, the cyclosporine dose should be based on cyclosporine whole blood trough concentrations [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12 . 8 )] .
In renal transplantation, there are limited data regarding dosing Zortress with reduced cyclosporine trough concentrations of 25 to 50 ng/mL after 12 months. Zortress has not been evaluated in clinical trials with other formulations of cyclosporine. Prior to dose reduction of cyclosporine, it should be ascertained that steady state everolimus whole blood trough concentration is at least 3 ng/mL. There is an interaction of cyclosporine on everolimus, and consequently, everolimus concentrations may decrease if cyclosporine exposure is reduced [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
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