Zortress (Page 6 of 12)

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no data regarding the presence of Zortress in human milk, the effects on breastfed infants, or the effects on milk production. Everolimus and/or its metabolites are readily transferred into milk of lactating rats at a concentration 3.5 times higher than in maternal rat serum. In pre-post-natal and juvenile studies in rats, exposure to everolimus during the postnatal period caused developmental toxicity [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. Advise lactating women not to breastfeed because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in infants exposed to everolimus.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Contraception

Females should not be pregnant or become pregnant while receiving Zortress. Advise females of reproductive potential that animal studies have been performed showing Zortress to be harmful to the mother and developing fetus [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Females of reproductive potential are recommended to use highly effective contraception methods while receiving Zortress and up to 8 weeks after treatment has been stopped.

Infertility

Females

Amenorrhea occurred in female patients taking Zortress [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Zortress may cause pre-implantation loss in females based on animal data [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

Female fertility may be compromised by treatment with Zortress.

Males

Zortress treatment may impair fertility in males based on human [see Warnings and Precautions (5.18), Adverse Reactions (6.2, 6.3)] and animal findings [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safe and effective use of Zortress in kidney or liver transplant patients younger than 18 years of age has not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

There is limited clinical experience on the use of Zortress in patients of age 65 years or older. There is no evidence to suggest that elderly patients will require a different dosage recommendation from younger adult patients [ s ee C linical Pharmacology ( 12. 5 ) ] .

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

Everolimus whole blood trough concentrations should be closely monitored in patients with impaired hepatic function. For patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A), the dose should be reduced by approximately one-third of the normally recommended daily dose. For patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B or C), the initial daily dose should be reduced to approximately half of the normally recommended daily dose. Further dose adjustment and/or dose titration should be made if a patient’s whole blood trough concentration of everolimus, as measured by an LC/MS/MS assay, is not within the target trough concentration range of 3 to 8 ng/mL [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12. 6 )] .

8.7 Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is needed in patients with renal impairment [ s ee Clinical Pharmacology (12. 6 ) ] .

10 OVERDOSAGE

Reported experience with overdose in humans is very limited. There is a single case of an accidental ingestion of 1.5 mg everolimus in a 2-year-old child where no adverse reactions were observed. Single doses up to 25 mg have been administered to transplant patients with acceptable acute tolerability. Single doses up to 70 mg (without cyclosporine) have been given with acceptable acute tolerability. General supportive measures should be followed in all cases of overdose. Everolimus is not considered dialyzable to any relevant degree (less than 10% of everolimus removed within 6 hours of hemodialysis). In animal studies, everolimus showed a low acute toxic potential. No lethality or severe toxicity was observed after single oral doses of 2000 mg/kg (limit test) in either mice or rats.

11 DESCRIPTION

Zortress (everolimus) is a macrolide immunosuppressant.

The chemical name of everolimus is (1R, 9S, 12S, 15R, 16E, 18R, 19R, 21R, 23S, 24E, 26E, 28E, 30S, 32S, 35R)-1, 18-dihydroxy-12 -{(1R)-2-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl}-19,30-dimethoxy-15, 17, 21, 23, 29, 35-hexamethyl-11, 36-dioxa-4-aza-tricyclo[30.3.1.04,9 ] hexatriaconta-16,24,26,28-tetraene-2, 3,10,14,20-pentaone.

The molecular formula is C53 H83 NO14 and the molecular weight is 958.25 g/mol. The structural formula is:

Zortress structural formula of everolimus is (1R, 9S, 12S, 15R, 16E, 18R, 19R, 21R, 23S, 24E, 26E, 28E, 30S, 32S, 35R)-1, 18-dihydroxy-12 -{(1R)-2-[(1S,3R,4R)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxycyclohexyl]-1-methylethyl}-19,30-dimethoxy-15, 17, 21, 23, 29, 35-hexamethyl-11, 36-dioxa-4-aza-tricyclo[30.3.1.04,9] hexatriaconta-16,24,26,28-tetraene-2, 3,10,14,20-pentaone.
(click image for full-size original)

Zortress is supplied as tablets for oral administration containing 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 0.75 mg, and 1 mg of everolimus together with butylated hydroxytoluene, magnesium stearate, lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, crospovidone and lactose anhydrous as inactive ingredients.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Everolimus inhibits antigenic and interleukin (IL-2 and IL-15) stimulated activation and proliferation of T and B lymphocytes.

In cells, everolimus binds to a cytoplasmic protein, the FK506 Binding Protein-12 (FKBP-12), to form an immunosuppressive complex (everolimus: FKBP-12) that binds to and inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulatory kinase. In the presence of everolimus phosphorylation of p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase (p70S6K), a substrate of mTOR, is inhibited. Consequently, phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein and subsequent protein synthesis and cell proliferation are inhibited. The everolimus: FKBP-12 complex has no effect on calcineurin activity.

In rats and nonhuman primate models, everolimus effectively reduces kidney allograft rejection resulting in prolonged graft survival.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Everolimus pharmacokinetics have been characterized after oral administration of single and multiple doses to adult kidney transplant patients, hepatically-impaired patients, and healthy subjects.

Absorption

After oral dosing, peak everolimus concentrations occur 1 to 2 hours post dose. Over the dose range of 0.5 mg to 2 mg twice daily, everolimus Cmax and AUC are dose proportional in transplant patients at steady-state.

Food Effect

In 24 healthy subjects, a high-fat breakfast (44.5 g fat) reduced everolimus Cmax by 60%, delayed Tmax by a median 1.3 hours, and reduced AUC by 16% compared with a fasting administration. To minimize variability, everolimus should be taken consistently with or without food [ s ee Dosage and Administration (2. 6 ) ] .

Distribution

The blood-to-plasma ratio of everolimus is concentration dependent ranging from 17% to 73% over the range of 5 ng/mL to 5000 ng/mL. Plasma protein binding is approximately 74% in healthy subjects and in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. The apparent distribution volume associated with the terminal phase (Vz/F) from a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in maintenance kidney transplant patients is 342 to 107 L (range 128 to 589 L).

Elimination

Metabolism

Everolimus is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Following oral administration, everolimus is the main circulating component in human blood. Six main metabolites of everolimus have been detected in human blood, including 3 monohydroxylated metabolites, 2 hydrolytic ring-opened products, and a phosphatidylcholine conjugate of everolimus. These metabolites were also identified in animal species used in toxicity studies and showed approximately 100 times less activity than everolimus itself.

Excretion

After a single dose of radiolabeled everolimus was given to transplant patients receiving cyclosporine, the majority (80%) of radioactivity was recovered from the feces and only a minor amount (5%) was excreted in urine. Parent drug was not detected in urine and feces.

Pharmacokinetics in Kidney Transplant Patients

Steady-state is reached by Day 4 with an accumulation in blood concentrations of 2- to 3-fold compared with the exposure after the first dose. Table 4 below provides a summary of the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters.

Table 4. Steady-State Pharmacokinetic Parameters (mean +/- SD) Following the Administration of 0.75 mg Twice Daily
1 Population pharmacokinetic analysis.
C max T max AUC CL/F 1 Vc/F 1 Half-life (T 1/2 )
11.1 + 4.6 ng/mL 1-2 h 75 + 31 ng•h/mL 8.8 L/h 110 L 30 ± 11h

The half-life estimates from 12 maintenance renal transplant patients who received single doses of everolimus capsules at 0.75 mg or 2.5 mg with their maintenance cyclosporine regimen indicate that the pharmacokinetics of everolimus are linear over the clinically-relevant dose range. Results indicate the half-life of everolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients receiving single doses of 0.75 mg or 2.5 mg Zortress during steady-state cyclosporine treatment was 30 ± 11 hours (range 19 to 53 hours).

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