Teratogenic effects: Loteprednol etabonate has been shown to be embryotoxic (delayed ossification) and teratogenic (increased incidence of meningocele, abnormal left common carotid artery, and limb fixtures) when administered orally to rabbits during organogenesis at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day (35 times the maximum daily clinical dose), a dose which caused no maternal toxicity. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for these effects was 0.5 mg/kg/day (6 times the maximum daily clinical dose). Oral treatment of rats during organogenesis resulted in teratogenicity (absent innominate artery at ≥5 mg/kg/day doses, and cleft palate and umbilical hernia at ≥50 mg/kg/day) and embryotoxicity (increased post-implantation losses at 100 mg/kg/day and decreased fetal body weight and skeletal ossification with ≥50 mg/kg/day). Treatment of rats at 0.5 mg/kg/day (6 times the maximum daily clinical dose) during organogenesis did not result in any reproductive toxicity. Loteprednol etabonate was maternally toxic (significantly reduced body weight gain during treatment) when administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis at doses of ≥5 mg/kg/day.
Oral exposure of female rats to 50 mg/kg/day of loteprednol etabonate from the start of the fetal period through the end of lactation, a maternally toxic treatment regimen (significantly decreased body weight gain), gave rise to decreased growth and survival and retarded development in the offspring during lactation; the NOEL for these effects was 5 mg/kg/day. Loteprednol etabonate had no effect on the duration of gestation or parturition when administered orally to pregnant rats at doses up to 50 mg/kg/day during the fetal period.
Reproductive studies have been performed in rats and rabbits with tobramycin at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day parenterally and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ZYLET should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether topical ophthalmic administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Systemic steroids that appear in human milk could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Caution should be exercised when ZYLET is administered to a nursing woman.
Two trials were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ZYLET® (loteprednol etabonate and tobramycin ophthalmic suspension) in pediatric subjects age zero to six years; one was in subjects with lid inflammation and the other was in subjects with blepharoconjunctivitis.
In the lid inflammation trial, ZYLET with warm compresses did not demonstrate efficacy compared to vehicle with warm compresses. Patients received warm compress lid treatment plus ZYLET or vehicle for 14 days. The majority of patients in both treatment groups showed reduced lid inflammation.
In the blepharoconjunctivitis trial, ZYLET did not demonstrate efficacy compared to vehicle, loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension, or tobramycin ophthalmic solution. There was no difference between treatment groups in mean change from baseline blepharoconjunctivitis score at Day 15.
There were no differences in safety assessments between the treatment groups in either trial.
No overall differences in safety and effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.
ZYLET (loteprednol etabonate and tobramycin ophthalmic suspension) is a sterile, multiple dose topical anti-inflammatory corticosteroid and anti-infective combination for ophthalmic use. Both loteprednol etabonate and tobramycin are white to off-white powders. The chemical structures of loteprednol etabonate and tobramycin are shown below.
Chemical name: chloromethyl 17α-[(ethoxycarbonyl)oxy]-11β -hydroxy-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β -carboxylate
O-3-Amino-3-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→ 4)-O- [2,6-diamino-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-D-ribo-hexopyranosyl- (1→ 6)] -2-deoxystreptamine
Each mL contains: Actives: Loteprednol Etabonate 5 mg (0.5%) and Tobramycin 3 mg (0.3%). Inactives: Edetate Disodium, Glycerin, Povidone, Purified Water, Tyloxapol, and Benzalkonium Chloride 0.01% (preservative). Sulfuric Acid and/or Sodium Hydroxide may be added to adjust the pH to 5.5 to 6.2. The suspension is essentially isotonic with a tonicity of 260 to 320 mOsm/kg.
Corticosteroids inhibit the inflammatory response to a variety of inciting agents and probably delay or slow healing. They inhibit the edema, fibrin deposition, capillary dilation, leukocyte migration, capillary proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, deposition of collagen, and scar formation associated with inflammation. There is no generally accepted explanation for the mechanism of action of ocular corticosteroids. However, corticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, collectively called lipocortins. It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid.
Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2 . Corticosteroids are capable of producing a rise in intraocular pressure.
Loteprednol etabonate is structurally similar to other corticosteroids. However, the number 20 position ketone group is absent.
The anti-infective component in the combination (tobramycin) is included to provide action against susceptible organisms. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tobramycin is active against susceptible strains of the following microorganisms:
Staphylococci, including S. aureus and S. epidermidis (coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative), including penicillin-resistant strains.
Streptococci, including some of the Group A-beta-hemolytic species, some nonhemolytic species, and some Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, most Proteus vulgaris strains, Haemophilus influenzae and H. aegyptius , Moraxella lacunata , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and some Neisseria species.
In a controlled clinical study of ocular penetration, the levels of loteprednol etabonate in the aqueous humor were found to be comparable between Lotemax and ZYLET treatment groups.
Results from a bioavailability study in normal volunteers established that plasma levels of loteprednol etabonate and Δ1 cortienic acid etabonate (PJ 91), its primary, inactive metabolite, were below the limit of quantitation (1 ng/mL) at all sampling times.
The results were obtained following the ocular administration of one drop in each eye of 0.5% loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic suspension 8 times daily for 2 days or 4 times daily for 42 days. This study suggests that limited (<1 ng/mL) systemic absorption occurs with 0.5% loteprednol etabonate.
Long-term animal studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of loteprednol etabonate or tobramycin.
Loteprednol etabonate was not genotoxic in vitro in the Ames test, the mouse lymphoma TK assay, a chromosome aberration test in human lymphocytes, or in an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Oral treatment of male and female rats at 50 mg/kg/day and 25 mg/kg/day of loteprednol etabonate, respectively, (500 and 250 times the maximum clinical dose, respectively) prior to and during mating did not impair fertility in either gender. No impairment of fertility was noted in studies of subcutaneous tobramycin in rats at 100 mg/kg/day (1700 times the maximum daily clinical dose).
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